Decoherence and the Appearance of a Classical World in Quantum Theory

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When we were preparing the first edition of this book, the concept of de coherence was known only to a minority of physicists. In the meantime, a wealth of contributions has appeared in the literature - important ones as well as serious misunderstandings. The phenomenon itself is now experimen tally clearly established and theoretically well understood in principle. New fields of application, discussed in the revised book, are chaos theory, informa tion theory, quantum computers, neuroscience, primordial cosmology, some aspects of black holes and strings, and others. While the first edition arose from regular discussions between the authors, thus leading to a clear" entanglement" of their otherwise quite different chap ters, the latter have thereafter evolved more or less independently. While this may broaden the book's scope as far as applications and methods are con cerned, it may also appear confusing to the reader wherever basic assumptions and intentions differ (as they do). For this reason we have rearranged the or der of the authors: they now appear in the same order as the chapters, such that those most closely related to the "early" and most ambitious concept of decoherence are listed first. The first three authors (Joos, Zeh, Kiefer) agree with one another that decoherence (in contradistinction to the Copen hagen interpretation) allows one to eliminate primary classical concepts, thus neither relying on an axiomatic concept of observables nor on a probability interpretation of the wave function in terms of classical concepts.
 

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Decoherence theory explains why quantum weirdness (superposition, entanglement, etc) is absent at the macroscopic level (except for such exotica as superfluidity, superconductivity, and Bose-Einstein ... ҹԴ繩Ѻ

Introduction
1
Basic Concepts and Their Interpretation
7
212 Superselection Rules
11
213 Decoherence by Measurements
13
22 Observables as a Derived Concept
17
23 The Measurement Problem
21
24 Density Matrix Coarse Graining and Events
33
25 Conclusions
40
611 Spaces of States
262
612 Spaces of Observables
267
613 Superselection Rules
275
62 Symmetries and Superselection Rules
278
621 Symmetries
279
622 Superselection Rules from Symmetries
284
The Univalence Superselection Rule
285
624 Discussion and Caveats
287

Decoherence Through Interaction with the Environment
41
31 The General Mechanisms of Decoherence
47
312 Scattering Processes
55
313 EnvironmentInduced Superselection Rules
57
32 Localization of Objects
62
321 Localization Through Ideal Measurements
64
3212 Equation of Motion
70
3213 Decohering Wave Packets
75
3214 More General RecoilFree Decoherence
78
322 Decoherence and Dissipation
79
3222 Ehrenfest Theorems
87
3223 Decoherence Versus Friction
89
323 Wigner Function Description of Decoherence
90
324 Molecular Structure
99
325 Decoherence in the Brain
107
33 Dynamical Consequences
109
331 The Quantum Zeno Effect
110
3311 Phenomenological Description
111
3312 An Experimental Test
118
3313 Models for the Quantum Zeno Effect
122
332 Master Equations
126
3322 Lindblads Form of Master Equations
133
333 Dynamical Stability of States
135
3331 Sensitivity to the Presence of an Environment
136
3332 Decoherence and Quantum Computation
145
3333 Quantum Nondemolition Measurements
147
334 Decoherence and Quantum Chaos
149
3342 Example
152
3343 Quantum ? Chaos in the Solar System
156
3344 Decoherence Through Chaotic Environments
159
34 Interpretational Issues
161
342 Quantum Information and Teleportation
172
343 True False and Fake Decoherence
175
Decoherence in Quantum Field Theory and Quantum Gravity
181
41 Decoherence in Quantum Electrodynamics
182
412 Measurement of Electromagnetic Fields by Charges
188
42 Decoherence and the Gravitational Field
192
422 The Formalism of Quantum Cosmology
196
423 Decoherence in Quantum Cosmology
199
424 Classicality of Primordial Fluctuations in the Early Universe
209
425 Black Holes Wormholes and String Theory
218
Consistent Histories and Decoherence
227
51 Influence Functional and Its Application to Quantum Brownian Motion
229
52 Definition and Properties of Consistent Histories
238
53 Reduced Density Matrix and Decoherence
247
54 Consistent Histories Arrow of Time and Quantum Gravity
251
Superselection Rules and Symmetries
259
61 States Observables and Superselection Rules
261
63 Physical Symmetries Versus Gauge Transformations
289
632 Symmetries and Redundant State Spaces
292
633 Symmetries Redundancies and Superselection Rules
297
64 Superselection Rules in Field Theory
303
641 Charge and Asymptotic FluxDistribution in QED
304
642 Poincare Charges in General Relativity
310
643 Decoherence and Charge Superselection Rules
312
Open Quantum Systems
317
71 Reduced Dynamics
319
72 Projection Methods
321
73 Generalized Master Equations
327
74 Markov Approximation and Semigroups
330
75 Quantum Stochastic Processes
333
76 Induced Superselection Sectors
339
762 Hamiltonian Models of Decoherence
341
7621 The ArakiZurek Models
343
7622 Particle Coupled to a Massless Boson Field
345
7623 Models with Scattering
347
7624 Heisenberg Picture
348
77 Mathematical Supplement
350
772 Complete Positivity
354
773 Entropy Inequalities
355
Stochastic Collapse Models
357
812 Decoherence Collapse Measurement
358
813 Various Approaches to Collapse
363
82 Spontaneous Collapse Models
369
822 Spontaneous Localization by a Jump Process
370
823 Continuous Spontaneous Localization
373
83 Spontaneous Localization Quantum State Diffusion and Decoherence
378
Related Concepts and Methods
383
92 Ergodicity and Irreversible Amplification
385
93 Dressing of States
387
94 Symmetry Breaking and Collective Motion
388
A1 Equation of Motion of a Mass Point
395
A2 Solutions for the Equation of Motion
399
A22 Green Functions
402
A23 Some Derived Quantities
403
A3 Elementary Properties of Composite Systems in Quantum Mechanics
407
A4 Quantum Correlations
415
A5 Hamiltonian Formulation of Quantum Mechanics
419
A6 Galilean Symmetry of NonRelativistic Quantum Mechanics
425
A7 Stochastic Processes
433
A72 Markov Chains
434
A73 Stochastic Processes
436
A74 The FokkerPlanck Equation
437
A75 Stochastic Differential Equations
439
References
445
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