Theatre in Southeast Asia

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Harvard University Press, 1967 - 370 ˹
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An astonishing variety of theatrical performances may be seen today in the eight countries of Southeast AsiaBurma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. James Brandon spent more than three years observing and interviewing troup members in these countries. He describes twenty-five of the most important theatrical forms, grouping them according to their origins as folk, court, popular, or Western theatre. He considers the theatre from four perspectives: its origins, its art, its role as a social institution, and its function as a medium of communication and propaganda. Brandon's wide-ranging and lively discussion points out interesting similarities and differences among the countries, and many of his superb photographs are included here.

 

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INTRODUCTION
1
A Historical Background
5
Major Languages of the Southeast Asia Mainland 170
6
THE CULTURAL SETTING
7
in the Philippines
10
The lakon jatri folkderived danceplay Manora performed in Thailand
10
Popular Theatre following page
22
H R H Princess Buppha Devi and dancers of the Royal Cambodian Ballet
23
The tarian ashek a Malay folk dance popular in ancient times
134
Female dancers in Thailand dressed in typical costume for lakon dance drama
134
A carving from the fourteenthcentury Panataran temple in eastern Java
134
Wayang orang dancers showing profile body position and arm position borrowed from wayang kulit puppets
134
Thai performers dress and move like puppets
134
PRODUCTION
146
Production following page
150
TRANSMISSION OF THEATRE ART
154

Ravana attacks Prince Rama in a Thai khon play
24
An episode from the Ramayana in a khon performance in Thailand
25
Court artists air wayang kulit puppets owned by Sultan Hamengku
26
Court Theatre following page
34
Buwono of Jogjakarta
34
A battle pose of Gatutkatja and the ogre Sekipu in a Javanese wayang orang danceplay
34
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEATRE GENRES
41
Javanese Wayang Kulit following page
46
Bima exultantly performs a victory dance
46
Karna and Arjuna fighting with drawn daggers 30 Irawan romantically carries Titisari off into the garden
46
Gatutkatja cutting off the head of the ogre Mingkalpa 32 The clown puppets Gareng and Petruk with Semar their father
46
Gatutkatja Bima Arjuna Kresna and Baladewa
46
TRADITIONS OF THEATRE
80
Chronological Development of Genres within Folk Popular Court and Western Theatre Traditions
82
Puppets following page
86
A wooden clown figure in Javanese wayang klitik
87
Balinese wayang kulit puppets of Yudistira Bima and Arjuna
88
A giant kite of northeastern Malaysia
88
A Malaysian wayang kulit figure of Rama 38 A Malaysian wayang kulit puppet of the nineheaded Ravana
88
Childrens costumes in a Sundanese Village
88
Children in Sunda admire wayang golek doll puppets
88
Theatre as
88
DRAMA
89
MUSIC AND DANCE
125
Typical Musical Ensembles Used in Major Theatre Genres
130
Music and Dance following page
134
Gongs of a Javanese gamelan ensemble used in ludruk
134
Isolated Vietnamese mountaineers play bamboo xylophone stringed instruments and a wind instrument related to the Lao khen
134
Traditional mohlam sung by one male accompanied by a single khen
134
A Sundanese wayang topeng dancer illustrating the narrow stance and restrained gestures of female dance in Indonesia
134
A Javanese wayang topeng dancer showing the broad stance and expan sive gestures of male dance
134
Transmission following page
162
Number of amateur theatre troupes registered in East Java 1963 166 2 Number of amateur theatre troupes registered in the District of Purwokerto 19...
166
Theatre as an Institution
169
EXTENT AND DISTRIBUTION
171
Estimated number of professional theatre troupes in Southeast Asia
173
Number of theatre troupes related to population in selected cities
180
THEATRE AND THE SOCIAL CONTRACT
188
Social Contract following page
198
THE TROUPE
206
Membership composition of four different types of troupes
209
ECONOMICS
238
Estimated average nightly gross income of troupes
239
Real gross nightly income of selected wellknown troupes
240
Real gross nightly income of troupes of different sizes
241
Average nightly salaries paid members of one large wayang orang troupe
247
Average nightly salaries paid members of a large and a small ketoprak troupe
248
THE AUDIENCE
255
SOCIAL STATUS OF TROUPES
267
Educational level of young and old wayang golek puppeteers
270
Theatre as Communication
275
PAST AND PRESENT
277
Modernization following page
284
Number of troupes and performers employed by offices of the Indonesian Ministry of Information 1964
289
Number of performances by Ministry of Information troupes East Java 19601963
290
Average number of performances per Ministry of Information troupe per year East Java 1963
291
THEATRE AND OTHER MASS MEDIA
302
Estimated number of radio sets and percentage of population owning radios
303
Estimated number of movie houses and legitimate theatre buildings
305
Communication following page
306
THEATRE AND THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
314
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