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AND DEVELOPMENT

OF THE

MORAL IDEAS

1

BY

EDWARD WESTERMARCK, PH.D.

LECTURER ON SOCIOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FINLAND, HELSINGFORS
APPOINTED TEACHER OF SOCIOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
(MARTIN WHITE BENEFACTION) AUTHOR OF THE

"HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE"

i

IN TWO VOLUMES

Vol. I

LIBRARY

OF THE
UNIVERSITY

OF

CALIFORNA

London
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

All rights reserted

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PREFACE

The frequent references made in the present work, on my own authority, to customs and ideas prevalent among the natives of Morocco, require a word of explanation. Seeing the close connection between moral opinions and magic and religious beliefs, I thought it might be useful for me to acquire first-hand knowledge of the folk-lore of some non-European people, and for various reasons I chose Morocco as my field of research. During the four years I spent there, largely among its country population, I have not only collected anthropological data, but tried to make myself familiar with the native way of thinking ; and I venture to believe that this has helped me to understand various customs occurring at a stage of civilisation different from our own.

I purpose before long to publish the detailed results of my studies in a special monograph on the popular religion and magics of the Moors. For these researches I have derived much material

support from the University of Helsingfors. I am also indebted to the Russian Minister at Tangier, M. B. de Bacheracht, for his kindness in helping me on several occasions when I was dependent on the Sultan's Government. All the time I have had the valuable assistance of my Moorish friend Shereef Abd-es-Salâm el-Baķķâli, to whom credit

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