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“The New America,' in which I tried to de- tually changing hands. As the Nascribe the novel experience of rediscovering poleonic wars ended the aristocratic my own country. Events moved rapidly, epoch and brought the middle class to

. , and I need add only one or two items from

the fore, so the great war has ended the diary, telling of the end of the greatest

the rule of the middle class and will war in history, the meaning and issue of which are locked in the bosom of God.)

bring the man down under to the top.

Of course, as to outward appearance, October 25. - Three times since I re- the aristocratic and middle classes still turned I have spoken to groups in be- rule; but their ideas do not rule. There

I half of Anglo-American friendship, but will be no violent upheaval in England; to little avail. My audiences were al- the genius of the British mind - a ready utterly convinced, and it was like practical mysticism, so to name it, arguing with Miss Pankhurst in favor though the practicality is often more of woman suffrage -- as useless as rain manifest than the mysticism - will

at sea. Somehow we never get beyond not let it be so. Again and again I have the courtesies and commonplaces of seen them drawn up in battle-array, after-dinner eloquence. Yet the matter ready for a fight to a finish — then, the is of vital importance just now. Al- next moment, they begin to parley, ready there are rumors of friction be- to give and take; and, finally, they comtween our boys and the Tommies. promise, each getting something and These are little things, but the sum of nobody getting all he asked. Therein them is very great, and in the mood of they are wise, and their long political the hour so many reactions of personal experience, their instinct for the middle antagonism may be fatal. Not much way, as well as their non-explosive temidealism is left after the long struggle, perament, stand them in good stead in and one fears a dreadful reaction, these days. Besides, if English society swift, hideous slip backward, — driv

- is a house of three stories, the house has ing Britain and America further apart been so shaken by the earthquake of than they were before the war. Little war that all classes have a new sense of groups do something, but what we need kinship and obligation. No doubt there is some great gesture, to compel atten- will be flare-ups in Wales, or among the tion and dramatize the scene for the hot-heads on the Clyde; but there is masses on both sides of the sea. Frank- little danger of anything more. ly, I am not clear as to the best method November 8. Went to Oxford last

except that we have not found it. night to hear Professor Gilbert Murray Even now, all feel that the end of the lecture on the Peloponnesian War of war is near, and one detects tokens the Greeks as compared with our great which foretell a different mood when war; and his words haunt me. With peace arrives.

an uncanny felicity, the great scholar October 29. — Ever and again one who is also a great citizen told the hears rumors of a revolution in England story of the war that destroyed Greek in which things will be turned upside civilization; and the parallel with the down. One might be more alarmed, present war was deadly, even down to but for the fact that the revolution has minute details. About the only differalready taken place. The old England ences are the magnitude of the armies has gone, taking with it much that was and the murderous efficiency of the lovely and fair; a new England is here, weapons we now employ. As I listened, - new in spirit, in vision, in outlook, - I found myself wondering whether I not only changing in temper, but ac- was in Oxford or in ancient Athens.

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The lecturer has the creative touch ourselves has made for righteousness, which makes history live in all its vivid and we are awed, subdued, overhuman color. Euripides and Aristo- whelmed. The triumph seems wrought, phanes seemed like contemporaries. not by mortal, but by immortal thews,

What depressed me was the monoto- and shouts of joy are muffled by nous sameness of human nature through- thoughts of the gay and gallant dead. out the ages. Men are doing the same The rebound from the long represthings they did when Homer smote his sion was quick, the outburst startling. lyre or Hammurabi framed his laws. Men danced in the streets. They For example, in the Athens of antiquity hugged and kissed and sobbed. Flags there were pacifists and bitter-enders, flew everywhere, flags of every color. profiteers and venal politicians - ev- Women wore dresses made of flags. erything, in fact, with which the great Shops and factories emptied of their war has made us familiar. After twen- own accord. At an early hour a vast ty centuries of Christian influence, we host gathered at the gates of Buckingdo the same old things in the same old ham Palace, singing the national anfashion, only on a more gigantic scale. them. The King and Queen appeared

This shadow fell over me to-day as I on the balcony, and a mighty shout talked with a young French officer in went up — like the sound of many my study. He used this terrible sen- waters. tence with an air of sad finality: 'Ideals, St. Paul's was jammed by noon; the my reverend friend, are at the mercy of Abbey was packed. It melted the heart the baser instincts.' What faith it takes to hear them sing — there was an echo to sustain an ardent, impatient, for- of a sob in every song. All know that ward-looking soul in a slow universe! the secret of our joy is locked in the ‘Keep facing it,' said the old skipper cold young hearts that sleep in Flanto the young mate in Conrad's Typhoon; ders, in eyes that see the sun no more. and ere we know it, the ship has be- Never was the world so coerced by its come a symbol of the life of man. He dead. They command; we must obey. did not know whether the ship would From prayer the city turned to play be lost or not nor do we. But he again. No wonder; the long strain, the kept facing the storm, taking time to be bitter sorrow, the stern endurance had just to the coolies on board, much to to find vent. At first, peace seemed as the amazement of Jukes. He never lost unreal as war. It took time to adjust hope; and if he was an older man when the mind to the amazing reality. Even he got through the storm, he at least now it seems half a dream. There is sailed into the harbor.

little hate, only pity. The rush of events November 11. London went wild has been so rapid, so bewildering, that to-day. As a signal that the Armistice men are dazed. Down on the Embankhad been signed, the air-raid guns ment I saw two old men, walking armsounded, – bringing back unhappy in-arm, one blind, the other half-blind, memories, - but we knew that 'the and both in rags. One played an old desired, delayed, incredible time' had battered hand-organ, and the other arrived. The war has ended; and hu- sang in a cracked voice. They swayed manity, on its knees, thanks God. to and fro, keeping time to the hymn, Words were not made for such a time. “Our God, our hope in ages past.' So it They stammer, and falter, and fail. was from end to end of London. The Whether to shout or weep, men did not gray old city seemed like a cathedral, know; so we did both. Something not its streets aisles, its throngs worshipers. SUDDEN GREATNESS

BY KENNETH CHAFEE MCINTOSH

A LEAN, quiet man pushed his way already affecting the lives of every one through the crowd into the open of the of us, that is forcing upon us changes as parade-ground at Fort Myer, and vast as those forecasted when the apeperched himself uncomfortably in the man first discovered that, by swaying midst of a bundle of sticks. A weight erect on his bent legs, he could see his crashed down from the top of a derrick, enemies and his victims farther, and and the bundle, with droning, whining have two arms free for fighting. propeller, was thrown into the air, and In the immense development of aviastayed there. Breath was drawn in with tion forced by the war we are apt to sharp, audible gasping, and eyes grew forget the tremendous strides made in round in upturned faces. The impos- the first faltering years. As usual, figsible had happened. Orville Wright ures and statistics are deceptive, and was proving to the army that he could performances seemed to confirm the fly.

opinion of those who saw in the airWhen the air-plane had landed clum- plane nothing but a toy and a mansily on its two sled-like runners, and killer. Three years after the Fort Myer the reporters surged around, we have flight, it was still a remarkable perrecord of the following queries and formance to remain in the air for fortyreplies:

five minutes, or to climb to an altitude How fast can you fly?'

of six or seven thousand feet. After six *Forty miles an hour.'

years of flying, it was still a dare-devil 'How fast do you think air-planes feat to loop an air-plane three times in can be made to fly?'

one Alight; and the first man to fly up“Much faster. But, of course, the side down made his name as well known flyer would be blown out of the machine as that of a champion heavy-weight, at anything over a hundred miles an and known among much the same classhour.'

es of people. Pilot after pilot was feaHow high can you go?'

tured on the sporting pages of the news‘High as I want to. But even in war papers as he succeeded in remaining you would never have to go over one aloft five minutes longer than the hero thousand feet. No known gun could of the month before, reached an altihit you at that altitude.'

tude fifty feet higher, or somersaulted “What uses can you make of your his vibrating little kite once oftener. machine?'

And with deadly regularity pilot after 'Sport mainly, and scouting in war.' pilot was killed his effort to find out

Of the thousands who saw that after- how far he could stretch the capacity of noon, and of the millions who read of his machine being successful. the flight next morning, probably not During those years, however, clumsy one had the least dim perception that a skids gave place to wheels and ponmighty power was born, a power that is toons, or actual boat-hulls; and, while

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planes remained rickety toys, the root- come a screaming leap from continent idea of every practicable type we have to continent, and air-planes now cross to-day was discovered and demon- half a world with little comment. strated, waiting only for some impera- Similarly, the projected uses of airtive necessity to force its development. craft as 'scouts' and for ‘sport' have Rotary and V-type motors began to widened as greatly. Well-appointed appear.

municipal flying-fields are multiplying Before the war began, aviation had rapidly, but the air-plane has far outreached the point where its future could grown the present possibilities of a be confidently predicted by the initia- Sporting craft. Possible speed has beted as a matter of improvement of ex- come so great that a private field capisting types, of betterment of existing able of handling the newest planes is design, rather than as a new departure. about as inaccessible to the average Then came the World War, with its man as a private eighteen-hole golfpressing demands on air-craft designers links; and the only sporting air-craft and pilots, and its almost limitless that are within the reach of moderate money for experiment.

wealth are small flying-boats along Aviation has attained in fifteen years lake shores and landlocked bays. a degree of progress which can hardly A great future is claimed for airbe matched by any other epoch-making borne commerce, and the claim is, posinvention in centuries. One hundred sibly, justified. At present, however, and eighteen years since the Clermont, planes and dirigibles are enormously one hundred and fifty since Franklin's expensive, both in first cost and in upkite, and aviation is already as ad- keep in relation to durability; and the vanced, relatively, as steam and elec- small amount of freight they can carry tricity. John Hawkins and Francis will for some time keep cargo and pas Drake revolutionized naval warfare by senger rates above the bearing-power of fighting broadside instead of head-on, the market. The problem of commerand once for all made the gun the mas- cial aviation is, nevertheless, plainly ter of surface ships; and the all-big-gun stated, and once stated, problems are battleship, throwing a heavy broad- eventually solved. The need is for a side, is the legitimate child of Drake's weight-carrier of considerable durabilweatherly little Pelican. Three hundred ity, simple of operation and of low fueland sixty years were required to pro- consumption. This is naturally an enduce the modern battleship after Drake gineering problem, and the appearance had shown the way; and there is yet no of a lightweight, heavy-duty motor of more difference visible than already dis- 'fool-proof' design may be confidently tinguishes the army's new Verville- expected sooner or later. Wings and Packard from the original Wright air- body are already made of light, durable, plane hanging in the National Museum rustproof metal; and the commercial at Washington. Orville Wright's forty- air-plane a generation hence will probmile speed has become three miles a ably resemble a plump-bodied 'blanketminute, and the end is not yet. His one fish' or 'giant ray,' of slow landingthousand-feet altitude has become seven speed

speed and excessive stability – a miles, and there halts momentarily machine as essentially a worker as a while we safeguard the gasoline and oil tramp steamer, too clumsy for sport, system against the bitter cold of the too helpless for aggressive war. The black upper air. His twenty-two min- power-plant problem once solved, airute, eighteen-mile endurance has be tramps will probably become as stand

ardized as fabricated ships or Ford cars. is stronger than we, the attack is more Air-fleets will then increase so rapidly difficult, but more than ever imperative; that a new difficulty will be encoun- and to a battle of weapons is added a tered - how to spare enough valuable battle of wits. We must outwit him, building-space in and around great outmaneuvre him, outshoot him; but cities to create ports of call for them. to have even the faintest hope of vicThe answer will probably be found tory, we must attack him, put him on in huge high platforms covering ware- the defensive-make him do the guesshouses and elevators and docks. ing and take the weight of the first blow.

Precisely in the direction where util- Even to the layman, the necessary ity and necessity have been found ur- characteristics of the fighting air-plane gent, even imperative, is where we find are thus made apparent — speed, snakethe most complicated questions to be like mobility, hitting-power. Speed solved; questions as yet unformulated. and mobility mean small size and imScouting in war remains and will re

mense engine-power. If that were all, main a function of air-craft, but it has this question too would be simple. But already been overshadowed by the to hit hard means weight. Carefully crying need of them in the battle-line. guarded planes now exist in every counWere scouting all we need, a single, try, which can stand a great many hits standardized type would be quickly from any ordinary machine-gun, and procurable-a plane of long endurance, are fairly impervious in any vital spot reasonable mobility, and complete to a glancing blow. A direct hit at pressteadiness. But a machine that answers ent-day maximum speed is a matter of these requirements we find to be utterly luck. Air-planes will soon carry canuseless in an air-battle. It climbs slow- non-like machine-guns — in fact, they ly, it manæuvres badly, and it presents already are carrying 37-millimetre guns an almost unmissable target. We must and straining to attain a practicable have such air-planes to direct artillery 3-inch gun, baulked only by this matfire afloat and ashore, to drop bombs, ter of weight of gun and ammunition. to hunt submarines, to scout, to make Speed and ability to‘stunt' cannot be photograph maps of distant enemy lessened, for the upper-hand' in an airnaval bases. To use them to advantage, fight is as important as was the weather we must, however, have reasonable

gauge to sailing-ships. certainty that they will be able to fly This brings the war-plane designer unmolested.

up sharp against his second stumblingIt is the old sea-problem in a new block. The inherent nature of the servelement — to exploit the air in war- ice means that little available weighttime we must command it. In other carrying capacity is left after the pilot words, we must fight for it. Sailors, for and his motor are aboard. That little five thousand years, have died to teach must be given mostly to weapons. And the flyer this lesson, — too often forgot- fuel weighs something, and fuel means ten, that to use our power we must endurance. A line-of-battle plane that first destroy the enemy's power. An at- can stay aloft three hours at battle tempt merely to guard against the speed is a marvelous plane indeed. In enemy's blow may, by extreme good battles between armies, much can be fortune, succeed once or twice. Never done in three hours, especially where three times. Delenda est Carthago, and practically the entire three hours can to destroy we must attack, court a bat- be spent in fighting. Afloat, it is diftle, and fight it to a finish. If the enemy ferent. Battleships of to-day are hard

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