been chiefly mechanical. But if, on the one hand, this entitles him to the greater praise, on the other, it must not screen him from animadversion-especially where he breaks out into the grandiloquent strain. Thus, after the account of the monument of Caxton, to be set up in Westminster Abbey at the expence of the Roxburghe Club, Mr. Johnson (at page 207) is quite carried away by the inspiring god—and concludes his grand apostrophe thus :-"May Caxton's fountain continue to How, unsullied, without the least interruption, till Time has run his course, and commenced his final work of destruction.” This is probably sincere; but it is bombastic. We think the printed title page in each volume--that is, the titles executed by metallic means-exceedingly curious and extraordinary ; but we put it to Mr. Johnson himself to say, whether he ever saw his own physiognomy in half so dolorous a plight as he sees it, executed in wood, prefixed to the second volume of his work? The truth is, that something has been here attempted, which, in its nature can never succeed. The art of wood-cutting can never produce reflected lights, or half-tints, as we see it in copper; especially on the scale here brought forward. Let the head of Caxton, and that of Mr. Johnson, be compared. The former is successful, because the lines are comparatively far apart: the latter is a total failure, because the lines are so close and delicate as to produce an opaque mass of shadow in their execution. The wood-cut opposite, executed upon totally different principles, is, as we have before observed, a perfect gem; and the work altogether, on the score of printing, is not only very much superior to what Fournier, in his well known “Manuaľ has produced, but will, we should apprehend, put all the Didots to their mettle to surpass

it. We think we can foresee the day, when the largest paper will be at a premium; and we sincerely and honestly hope that the author has, even by this time, met with the substantial reward which he deserves.

The Connection between the Sacred Writings and the Literature of

Jewish and Heathen Authors, particularly that of the Classical Ages, Illustrated principally with a view to evidence in confirmation of the truth of Revealed Religion. By ROBERT GRAY, D.D. Prebendary of Durham and of Chichester, and Rector of Bishop Wearmouth. 2 Vols. 8vo. Price 1l. 1s. London. Rivingtons. THERE is so much of the sacred writings which may be considered as strictly historical, that it might well excite our surprise if no connection could be traced between them, and the Pagan records of antiquity. If the latter were so entirely different, as to contribute nothing to the establishment of facts, or illustration of manners; if they were of no use to prove

the early origin, influence and prevalence of peculiar doctrines, sentiments and opinions, it would detract much, as well from the internal as from the external evidence of revelation. But as such connection, if found to exist, must on the other hand tend in both instances, greatly to strengthen that evidence, it was an undertaking well befitting so able a divine, and so eminent a scholar as Dr. Gray, to trace out for others, what very few persons comparatively could trace out for themselves, and fewer still so ably and satisfactorily as may be said to have been accomplished in the work before us. Dr. Gray's induce ment indeed to engage in the undertaking as set forth by himself, plainly enough shews, that it is after all, a connection not likely to strike every body so fully as it ought to do; so far from it indeed, that the cause both of revelation and of classical learning is in constant danger of suffering from the general neglect and oversight of such co-incidences, and resemblances, as may be said to establish the connection in question. For the cause of revelation is certainly likely to suffer, where persons of competent education, but of unsettled principles, or of an irreligious temper, overlooking such parallelisms or resemblances, become disposed, as was the case in old times, to give more credence to the profane than to the sacred writers; more credence to the fable than the fact; more credence to the shadowy forms and faint images of an original revelation, than to the actual realities of the Patriarchal, Jewish, or Christian dispensations; in drinking too deeply of the corrupted streamlets of history and tradition, to neglect the purer fountains of sacred and inspired truth. The cause of classical learning on the other hand is likely to suffer when graver persons, devoted to the truths of revelation, are led to view with a jealous eye the works of profane authors, as not only affording no support at all to the cause of religion, but as absolutely adverse from it, leading the mind into a totally different train of thinking, and therefore unworthy of being raised to such notice and estimation, as is known to be the case in our public seminaries of education. To set such matters right, and to point out the true bearings of the case, required such a pen as Dr. Gray's, and it can scarcely be necessary for us, in our inquisitorial capacity, to inform the public, that in these volumes, this delicate task will be found to be admirably performed. Anxious to wipe away the reproach too often cast on the objects of study to which the attention of the higher classes of our young men is princi. pally directed in the schools and universities of the realm, Dr. Gray has taken infinite pains to shew how much of sacred history, of patriarchal tradition, and of revealed religion is to be traced in those writings of the ancients which fall under the denomination of profane, (or prophane as we see Dr. G. spells it) in contradistinction to sacred literature ; how many facts may be proved, how many curious points illustrated, how much of prophecy may be confirmed or elucidated, by a reference to. those very writers who are commonly held to be not merely detached from the cause of revealed religion, but in too many instances adverse rather than otherwise to its sublime doctrines, its claims and pretensions. The very language in the mean while, in which many of those works are extant, being with one exception only, the original language of the New Testament, as well as of the earliest and most accredited translation of the old, cannot but render that branch of classical study of extreme importance to every commentator on scripture, to every candidate for holy orders, to every theologian and divine. But it is time that the learned author should speak for himself. He takes a wide range; the remains of antiquity to which he directs his enquiries, including such as fall under the several distinctions of Philosophy, History, and Poetry.

In page 2 of his introduction, the author thus lays open the scope of his researches.

" It should be observed, that in many departments of the liberal arts, besides those of philology and criticism, already alluded to, and even in some of the departments of science, a basis is laid on classical ground.

“ The most striking illustration, however, of the importance of heathen literature, arises from its connection with that of the sacred writings, from the evidence which it affords-in confirmation of the doctrines, institutions and facts upon which Christianity is founded, or to which its records indirectly relate. Indeed, it may not unreasonably be presumed, that the writings of Pagan antiquity have been providentially preserved, with peculiar regard to this great object, since, notwithstanding numerous productions of past ages have perished, sufficient remains are still possessed, to unite the cause of heathen literature with that of religion, and to render the one subservient to the interests of the other.

« Accordingly, the heathen writings substantiate, by an independent and collateral report, the occurrence of many of the events, and the aecomplishment of many of the prophecies recorded by the inspired writers ; they establish the accuracy of many incidental circumstances, which are interspersed throughout the Scriptures, and above all, by the gradually perverted representations which they give of revealed doctrines and institutions, they attest the actual communication of such truths from time to time, and pay the tribute of experience to the wisdom and necessity of a written revelation.” Vol. I. p. 2.

And again,

“ It needs scarcely be mentioned, that the main proofs in favour of the authority and importance of the sacred writings, are to be drawn from the internal evidence of inspiration which they contain, and front the wonderful connection and harmony of a scheme, carried on with uniform design, and attested by men miraculously supported through successive ages; but the subsidiary proofs which are to be deduced from the documents of human learning, however inferior they may be, are still valuable, and the more so, because they are to be found casually scattered without connection or design, in various works, produced by writers who lived in periods remote, and in countries distant from each other, who were not engaged in any common views, and who had no interest to confirm the sacred accounts.

“ In order to prove, to what great extent the Jewish and heathen literature is capable of affording such tribute to religion, and consequently of illustrating the wisdom and government of Providence, the author will endeavour to sketch out, in the ensuing pages, an abstract of some of the particulars, which throw a light on the history, the prophecies, the doctrines, and the institutions of religion, following where it may be, the order of time in the production of the extracts. He trusts that he shall be able to shew, that the whole range of ancient learning presents a wide scope for such important disquisitions, though it is his intention to take rather a popular view, than any elaborate survey of the subject. He is desirous—not to investigate every circumstance which bears a resemblance to objects described in Scripture, or to examine all the channels of intelligence which the heathens possessed, but only to give a general relief to particulars which exemplify the connection between the sacred and prophane writings; and by interesting the attention of the classical student, to lead him to prosecute enquiries, which may be carried with advantage far beyond the limits. of the present work.” Vol. I.

p. In the last paragraph of the introduction the learned author still more concisely sets forth the object he has in view.

The principal design, however, of the work is to promote an acquaintance with the evidence of revealed religion, and to excite in the rising generation a more animated reverence for those sacred truths which pervade all time, and which are engraven on every monument of human learning; which prescribe with all authority instructions to regulate the course of human life by a divine influence, and to prepare the mind for scenes of eternal happiness." Vol. I. p. 31.


Having glanced at the old objection made by the heathens themselves, and which received an answer from Origen in his reply to Celsus, and from Josephus in his books against Apion, namely, that their own fables were of superior antiquity to the Jewish records, thereby insinuating that the latter were but corruptions of the former; Dr. Gray proceeds to discuss many curious points in the course of thirty two chapters, of which his first volume consists, and which may be briefly summed up in the following selection of some only of the titles of those several chapters, amply shewing the extent and variety of his researches.

On the connection to be traced between the religious opinions of different nations indicating a common origin, chap. i.

Remains of Chaldean history chap. ii. of Persian chap. iii. of Phoenician chap. iv. and Egyptian chap. v. All these nations appear to have derived much assistance from the writings of Moses, or from actual communication with certain of the prophets.

On the intercourse which different nations may be supposed to have had with the Jews, chap. v. not excepting the Grecians and Romans chapters viii. ix, the progress of things having been decidedly from the east.

On the general belief in the existence of a Supreme Being, the Creator of the universe, &c. chap. x. On the intimations, to be found in the Old Testament, and among Jewish and Pa-, gan writers of a Trinity of persons in the Godhead, chap. xi.

On the creation of the world-origin of man and of evilimmortality of the soul in a state of future rewards and punishments--on the deluge--existence of spiritual beings-fall of man--customs of the Jews-accomplishment of Jewish prophecies--and on the prevalence of opinions relative to the necessity of an atonement for sin, and of the propriety of prayer and sacrifice. On the general expectation both amongst Jews, and heathens, of the coming of some great and extraordinary personage to reform the world and restore mankind to virtue. and happiness.

The co-incidences to be traced in ancient writings on all these important points, are in many instances very striking ; in others certainly less so, as the learned author acknowledges; but in all cases throughout these volumes a just medium is preserved, by neither making too much of them, which was the error of some of the earlier Fathers of the Church, nor slurring them over, nor passing unnoticed any resemblance which might justly deserve to be attended to, or examined.

In chap. xxvi. the learned writer treats of the Sibylline verses and oracles, with great ingenuousness and critical acu

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