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very true."

Us,'

)

“I think her a delightful little general axioms; he was thinking of a

; person.

I don't know when a girl of special case. that age has pleased me more.”

“Do you think she'll be pleased ?" “She's extremely pleasing. Ah, “ The girl herself ? Delighted, she at least is genuine.

surely." “Of course there's the difference in No, no; I mean Mrs. Osmond.” our ages—more than twenty years.” Ralph looked at him a moment.

My dear Warburton,” said Ralph, “My dear fellow, what has she to are you serious ?

do with it?" Perfectly serious—as far as I've “ Whatever she chooses. She is very got.”

fond of the girl." I'm very glad. And, heaven help * Very true

And cried Ralph, "how tickled Ralph slowly got up. “It's an in“

“ Gilbert Osmond will be."

teresting question-how far her fondHis companion frowned.

ness for the girl will carry her." He "I say, don't spoil it. I shan't stood there a moment with his hands marry his daughter to please him.” in his pockets, with a rather sombre

He will have the perversity to be eye. “I hope, you know, that you pleased all the same.'

are very-very sure

The deuce! “He's not so fond of me as that," he broke off, “I don't know how to said his lordship.

“ As that? My dear Warburton, Yes, you do; you know how to the drawback of your position is that say everything." people needn't be fond of you at all Well, it's awkward. I hope you to wish to be connected with you. are sure that among Miss Osmond's Now, with me in such a case, I should merits her being a-so near her step

ve the happy confidence that they mother isn't a leading one?” loved me.”

“Good heavens, Touchett! Lord Warburton seemed scarcely Lord Warburton, angrily, “for what to be in the mood for doing justice to do you take me ?

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HENRY JAMES, JR.

(To be continued.)

SUBSCRIPTION FROM ANOTHER POINT OF VIEW.

new

In the discussions which occasionally ing. The model deed of the Chapel take place on the subject of Sub- Building Society in that denominascription, several points have appeared tion is well known; and it is proto me to receive less consideration bably correct to say that no than they deserve, and there are some chapel is erected at the present day, important topics which seem to be with the aid of that Society, without passed over unnoticed. On several of care being taken that only such and these I propose in the present paper

such doctrines shall be preached in to offer a few remarks, and possibly the new pulpit as are considered by what I have to say may have the the managers of the Society to be effect of calling attention to these Christian and orthodox. The Huddersneglected parts of the general sub- field Chapel case, lately before the ject.

courts of law, is a case in point. What is meant by Subscription is It well shows how stringently such no doubt familiar enough to all. It is restrictions may be made to operatenot so clearly understood that others, and a doctrinal schedule is not the besides the clergy of the Church of only form in which they appear. England, are affected by the same The consequence is that a minister thing under a different name ;-that who deviates even a little in his minisis to say, that the Nonconformist trations from the Trust conditions, ministers are, for the most part may be expelled from his pulpit by (though not universally), as much un- process of law. Nothing worse can der the same restrictions as to doctrinal happen to a clergyman; and it is belief, and freedom of discussion, as clear, therefore, that the Nonconthe national clergy. How this comes formist who is under such trammels, to pass it is easy to point out. The exposed, we may say, to the theoloMethodist Conference, for example, gical dictation of a body of chapel exercises a careful supervision over builders, or a chapel committee of all candidates for the Wesleyan min. perhaps ill-informed persons, is in istry, and requires them virtually to no way exempt from “control” of a engage to believe and preach accord- galling and offensive kind-certainly ing to the teaching of Wesley's Sermons no more exempt than the clergyman and Notes on the New Testament. And who is amenable to his bishop, or the this is imaginary restriction.

law courts. What Wesleyan minister would have It is an easy inference from all this ventured to speak out as Canon Farrar that, in any measure for the relief of has done on the subject of Eternal the clergy in the matter of SubscripPunishment? The result of such tion, the similar case of the Nonconspeaking, it is well understood, would formists should not be forgotten. It be, as it has been, expulsion from the would be a fair and appropriate return body, and the loss of the privileges of for the long-continued exertions of the ministerial position.

Liberation Society that whatever may Similarly among the Congregation- be possible should be done for the alists there are such things as trust release of Nonconformist ministers deeds, with schedules of doctrine at from the “control,” if not from the the foot, to which it is required that "patronage,” of conferences, schethe minister shall conform his preach- dules of doctrine in chapel deeds, and

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inquisitorial deacons and chapel existing National Church, prescribing committees.

its belief as they did, and dictating A second point which deserves the very words of praise and prayer grave consideration, and

not that should be used by its ministersusually brought forward in these dis- words which necessarily imply the cussions, is this—how far it is right profession of very definite doctrinal in any man (supposing him to have beliefs—and permitting of no devia

— the power) to impose upon another tion whatever from the prescribed a specific confession or profession of forms—when they did this, they were religious belief, enforcing it so as to exercising only a usurped and illegitimake it essential to the enjoyment of mrate authority. Their proceeding certain pecuniary and other advan- anay indeed find some justification in tages. In general terms, it would, I the circumstances and beliefs of the should think, be admitted without age, much as the laws relating to argument, that no man is possessed of witchcraft may be thought to do. But any natural right to exercise such nevertheless, as in the case of those authority or control over another. laws, the course taken was founded in This position may be illustrated from error. It was essentially inconsistent the case of a father and his son--one with a high morality. The authority of the closest of the ties which can exist exercised could not, by the nature of between two human beings, one in the case, really belong to those who which authority and affection on the exercised it, any more than it would be one side, respect and confidence on the possible that the faculty of thinking other, may be assumed to exist in as in a given man should be taken away pure and disinterested a form as can from him and made the property of be well conceived. The question is, another person. Will it be morally right in the father, When men disobey a natural law, well aware as he must be of the even in ignorance, and act habitually fallibility of his own judgment, to in neglect of it, this is usually followed make use of the advantage which his by some penal consequence. It is so position gives him, either with or in the case of nations and legislatures, without the son's consent, to bind the and it is so in the case before us. latter to say “I assent and believe," "I Witness, generation after generation will continue to assent and believe," of disquiet in the Church, the multito bind and pledge him to do this by plication of sects, the alienation on attaching to it a valuable pecuniary religious grounds of large classes of the interest? Unquestionably, such a nation from each other. Such are and proceeding on the father's side would have been the consequences of the be wrong. It would be even morally Church policy of the sixteenth and wrong, and this from several points of seventeenth centuries—the uniformity view, into which I do not consider it of national faith on which it tried to necessary to enter in detail-neces- insist having hitherto proved to be sary at least for any thoughtful, the most vain and visionary of ends. earnest reader.

And so it was in the more terrible But if the proceeding be wrong in case of witchcraft. The unpatural the case supposed, can it be right in laws founded upon that belief, and the any other, as in that of a sovereign and untold miseries which resulted from his subjects, a legislature and those for them, gave dreadful testimony to the whom it makes laws, or a chapel com- falsehood and wrong involved in the mittee or a ruling Church body and a ideas upon which they were based. minister? This question too must If then, to pursue our main idea, surely be answered in the negative. the animus imponentis could have no When, therefore, Queen Elizabeth and right to impose, can it be right in the the statesmen of her time set up our subject mind to submit to the imposition, and to forego that natural and with him in this joint contract. It is sacred privilege of liberty of thought therefore a question to be asked, What which, quite as much as any of the do people in general understand him bodily senses, belongs to each man as to mean? a human being—to give this up, in a If, at the time, he makes no sort of certain sense, at the command or to open qualification or reservation, as to the disposal of another ? This ques- the particular sense in which he assents tion too, I should think, few persons and believes, he may reasonably be of clear and healthy mental vision held to do so in the obvious and popuwill answer in the affirmative ; and lar sense of the words to which he so, I venture to add, the entire system subscribes, It cannot be questioned of imposition and subscription of creeds that in the estimation of the great and articles of faith is demonstrably mass, not only of those who may

hear wrong and out of date, and ought to him in church, but of the whole nation, be got rid of as soon as may be. he does so; and that he assents to

But then, the creeds and articles and undertakes to believe and to use exist; and subscription to them is the words of Articles and Services in required, and must be given and is their ordinary and unqualified sense. given-voluntarily given—by those When, then, time after time, he rewho minister in the Church. The peats, “I believe,” in the Creeds, as, question of questions remains, What for example, the Article of the Incardoes it mean? What does it involve nation, in the words “conceived of in the way of promise and engage- the Holy Ghost,”—when he uses exment? This has been abundantly pressions which distinctly imply his discussed, and that, too, quite re- own consent to them, as in telling his cently and from different points of congregation that “without doubt” view. I would add to the discussion they shall “perish everlastingly” if the following consideration, which they do not hold and keep the Athaappears to me to be one of the nasian Creed,—when he says, in the greatest importance. I refer to the Baptismal Service, that the child is relation which exists between the “regenerate and grafted into the body Subscribing clergy and the general of Christ,” and delivered from God's public.

"wrath," by the rite performed-in The nation at large must be held all this people do, and will, and ought to constitute the body of the National to understand his words according to Church, of which the clergy are the their obvious meaning. Is he, then, at ministers. By the will of the nation liberty to go away from his readingthe Church exists—so far, that is to desk, and by virtue of an address or say, as it is in the exclusive posses- lecture, a tract or pamphlet, or an sion of the national endowments and article in a magazine, or even by a various connected privileges. The private conversation with his bishop, public has therefore a direct interest to put his own private construction as of right, not only in the services upon the words he has used, and so of the clergy, but also in what they to exonerate himself from the assent assent to and profess to believe and belief which he has professed beand to act upon as teachers of the fore the nation and in the sight of people. When, therefore, a clergy- God? There is something in this man "assents” to the Articles, and kind of proceeding which, to say the says that he believes the “ doctrine least, is questionable and unsatisfacthey contain to be “agreeable to the tory. It seems to come too near to Word of God,” he does not say this double dealing, and this in matters in any abstract kind of way, as if for of a very sacred character, in which his own sake only. He says it to the sincerity and straightforwardness nation, which is thus in effect a party should be eminently conspicuous. It looks too like making a contract in one trine to which they are legally bound sense and keeping it in another, in a to conform, or by doctrinal conditions way and to a degree which could not imposed by chapel committees and be permitted in the ordinary trans- conferences. The force of the objecactions of common life.

tion must be fully allowed. There is The cise would be bad enough if no more to be said in defence of the there were no personal interests in- pledging and binding of Nonconformist volved. It becomes a dreadfully bad ministers than of so treating the nacase when it is remembered, and it is tional clergy. Clearly they ought all impossible to forget, that very large to be free men ; free to think and to personal interests are involved. Those speak what they believe to be the who show themselves anxious to qualify truth; and it is unworthy of the and explain away the words they have nation and unworthy of the sects and used, and to prove that they mean churches to require their religious either very little, or something dif- teachers to stand before the world ferent from what is commonly sup- in any other character; and, let me posed, are, in effect, defending them- add, it is unworthy of clergymen and selves in the possession of great and ministers alike to submit to it.

They substantial advantages. I am far from ought all to "strike"! wishing to impute mercenary motives ; Another point to notice is that exbut there are multitudes in the country planations and qualifications which who are not so scrupulous. It is evi- have been offered as to the import of dent, at any rate, that it is at least an assent and belief, elaborate as they unhappy feature in the position of sometimes are, are not found to be affairs that personal interests of an very happy, when actually applied to important kind are so intimately the doctrinal statements in reference bound up with, and dependent upon to which they are made.

A man the assent and belief which are first assents to the Articles, but, we are professed, and then so considerably told, he need not believe them, at qualitied or nullified.

least as they stand. As Mr. Haweis The case is one which can hardly has expressed it, he accepts their fail to exercise an unfavourable in- “substance," but not necessarily their fluence upon the national morality. “form.”ı

1 He has (or claims) the By many it will be interpreted in right to distinguish between form and the worst sense that can be put upon substance. Apply this to a particular it, and will be held to warrant the case, as, for example, the Fourth assertion that the religious guides and Article. In this we read,

Christ teachers of the people are not so deli- did truly rise again from death, and cately sensitive and disinterested in took again His body, with flesh, bones, this matter of Subscription or their and all things pertaining to the perdefence of it as they ought to be. fection of man's nature; wherewith

I speak thus plainly on this point, He ascended into heaven, and there because I wish to set forth what ap- sitteth, until He return to judge all pears to amount to a most cogent men at the last day.' The subreason for sweeping away and getting stance” of this is, that Christ went rid of a system which exposes multi- up to heaven with His material body, tudes of excellent men to ungracious there to remain till He return to the and painful reflections of the kind earth at the last day. The subscribjust referred to.

ing clergyman “assents" to this; but A similar line of objection may be

does he believe it? In many cases, taken, as I have before noticed, in re- no doubt, he does so; in others most ference to the position of Nonconform- probably he does not, at least not in ist ministers, pledged and fettered as its obvious sense. He rejects the most of them are by schedules of doc- i Contemporary Review, February, 1881.

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