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every man. But, to secure this end, to lycée. The very programme of the they say that three changes must be lycée was formerly arranged on the made in the French system. Primary assumption that such a thing could education must be made compulsory, not happen. The lycée is not merely and therefore free and secular ;

a secondary school. It is meant to secondary must be so connected with give a boy all the education he needs primary and superior that

from the time he leaves home to the man's son may be able to rise from time he goes to the university, the the first to the third with the least army, or the “ school of arts.' The possible difficulty; and in the third paternal French government prescribes place the old narrow conservatism in the work to be done in the eight or regard to the subjects taught in the nine classes of a lycée, as our own higher schools must be relaxed.

lays down the code for the board How is the son of a working man

school. The classes of a lycée are or of a farm labourer to reach the divided into three groups, the elemenhighest heights of learning? This tary division, the division of grammar, question will inevitably meet us in and the superior division.

In the England as soon as we have put our classes of the first group (IX., VIII., school boards in order and have time VII.) a boy will learn the three R.'s to look beyond the barest necessaries and something more. He will study of intellectual life. We know that in his own language, and receive his first England it is hard for the labourer's introductions to history and geoson, handicapped by poverty, to graphy. In the division of grammar

, scrape together enough Latin and (classes VI., V., IV.) he will learn Greek to win a scholarship at Latin, Greek, with English or GerEnglish college ; and the public man, while he continues to study the

, schools are too dear for him. How three R.s and his own language. It do matters stand on the other side is a virtue of all French schools that of the Channel ? M. Paul Bert is they train the scholar well in French. fond of telling how, in a country

At the end of grammar" a boy walk, he picked up a peasant lad by

peasant lad by may, if he likes, pass an examination the wayside, found out his talents, and receive a certificate in grammar, and made him use them in gain- qualifying him, e.g. to begin his ing a bursary, by means of which studies for

of the inferior he is now studying in a provincial medical appointments.

medical appointments. But, if he lycée, on his way to the university. thinks of the university, he goes on On the whole, sheer merit counts for to the superior group

of school more in France than in England. classes (III., II., and I.), where he But even in France the three systems gains a minuter knowledge of ancient of primary, secondary, and superior and modern languages, history, and are not sufficiently connected, other- geography, and adds a little philowise the intervention of such a special sophy. If he is not to be a man of providence as M. Bert, would not have law or of letters, he may substitute been needed to convey ploughboys to

scientific studies for some of the adthe university. The three systems have vanced literary subjects of the proby no means been steps of one ladder. gramme; and the lycée is often conBy an English standard the fees in a nected with a “preparatory school” lycée are not high ; even in Paris they which gives a training for special are, for boarding and tuition, only professions. about 41. per pupil a month for the This is the case, for example, with lowest, and 51. for the highest classes; the Parisian Lycée St. Louis, from and the fees are frequently remitted, which most of the above features in the case of the poorer pupils.

Still have been taken. But in truth a it is confessedly a rare thing for the French lycée, whether it be in Paris, very poor to rise from parish school Lyons, or Boulogne, in Doubs, La

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Vendée, or Algeria, is essentially the been neglected in carly life should same institution, working after the have so pleasant an opportunity of same plan, and obeying the same remedying the neglect in their riper rules. There is no “ bazaar) of years. Knowledge cannot be made secondary schools in democratic France, too cheap. as in aristocratic England; there is Let us, however, go down the ladder a single type. To understand how again, in order to see whether the these schools related to the poor man's son can ever make his way “Faculties” of the university, we up to a university degree. The prehave only to think of the relation be- sent authorities are removing one or tween the university and the colleges two obstacles in his way.

For the in Oxford or Cambridge. Suppose the future, if he does not draw the Marcolleges of Oxford and Cambridge to shal's baton out of his knapsack, it is be elementary as well as secondary in to be his own fault. Till very recently their instruction ; suppose boys to it was not possible for a boy to resume enter them at ten or eleven, and his studies, on entering the lycée, at leave at eighteen or nineteen; suppose the exact point where he had stopped the discipline of school instead of the them on leaving his own parish school. liberty of college-life; and lastly sup- He learned no Latin at the parish pose the colleges to be scattered up and school; and if he came to the lycée down the country and even over the and wished to begin Latin from the colonies, instead of being congregated beginning, he must be put back to the in one town ;-that would be a near eighth class, which in all other subapproach to the system of secondary jects would be too elementary for education in France. The “Facul- him. The remedy has been found in ties” of the university, the several the deferring of Latin till the fifth professors of law, language, philosophy, class of the lycée; and steps are being and science, throughout the country taken to develop the system of burare the common Board of Examiners, saries and scholarships, so that poor who examine the pupils of the lycées boys may have abundant facilities for their Bachelor's, Licentiate's, As- for passing from Board School to sociate's, or Doctor's degree. The High School. Perhaps our English expression “University of France,” remedy would have been not to has, it is true, a wide sense; it means defer Latin in the lycée, but to introrather an Education Department, the duce it in the elementary school. Department of Secondary Education, But the French draw a hard and fast than a learned body; and, as such, it line between primary and secondary includes the lycées as well as the in- education. No subject is taught in stitutions which we in this country the primary schools that is not deemed would call Universities. But, as there absolutely necessary for all citizens; are lycées all over France, so there and all the subjects that are to be are “Faculties” of the University, studied by a boy at school are introgroups of University professors, in all duced to him in his very first year. the chief towns. Their lectures are free Reading, writing, arithmetic, French as air ; they are open to all, without grammar, French history, and general distinction of age, sex, rank, fortune, geography, these six studies make or qualification. Luckily or unluckily, up the entire literary programme. they have seldom any near bearing on a The child receives in his first year a student's work for his degree, and he sketch which he fills in detail is under no necessity to attend them. during the later years. The difference It would be interesting to know what between the first and the third

is proportion of bond-fide students fill simply between an elementary and a the lecture-room of M. Caro, M, complete way of treating the same Rénan, or M. Beaulieu. But it is subject. These main outlines are the well that those whose education has code for all primary schools. Nothing

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is fixed and rigid, however, except the will go beyond M. Hérold ; it will exmain outlines. The primary system clude even the English “time-table.” of education in France is on the whole The experiment of a purely secular a system of local self-government. education is about to be made by a Within the bounds of the general pro- nation which, unhappily, shows no gramme, each department may fix the great desire for anything beyond it. books and subjects for its own schools However un-Roman our creed, we canin its own way. There is an Organisa- not regard it as clear gain to France tion Pédagogique des Ecoles Publiques to have dismissed from her schools the du Département de la Seine, and simi- enthusiasm and energy of her countlar local codes for the other eighty-six less clerical teachers of both sexes. departments of France. Our neigh- Our best consolation is, perhaps, to bours are at present in somewhat the look at the enthusiasm of the lay same critical position in which we teachers in Paris and Lyons, who confound ourselves in 1870, when Mr. duct the nightly classes of the AssoForster's Act was passed. They are ciation Philotechnique, the Associaadopting great changes in popular tion Polytechnique, or the Union education, and they are fully alive to Française de la Jeunesse. These are the difficulties of the question. Some of voluntary associations of educated our English solutions they reject very people, many of them wealthy and in emphatically. M. Buisson, the writer office, who do not grudge to transof a small pamphlet, L'Instruction form themselves into unpaid amateur Primaire en Angleterre, which caused teachers of adult ignoramuses. They some stir last year in educational have brought knowledge within the circles, condemns our system of reach of thousands who were never “grants” or “payment by results," on speaking terms with their schoolas “encouraging both among teachers master; and they are living proofs of and

among parents mercenary the affinity between enlightenment spirit, little adapted to raise the and democracy. The societies themintellectual level of the English selves are the offspring of popular masses.” The French way of reward- Revolutions. The political zeal of ing a good teacher is to promote him 1830, overflowing into an educational from a provincial school to a Parisian, channel, produced the

produced the Association or to make him an inspector. A more Polytechnique.

The Philotechnique, important difference at the present which dates from 1848, and the Union crisis is in the treatment of religion Française, which dates from 1875, in the school. Till now, the French had similar origin. It would schools, primary and secondary, have be absurd to look on these simple been far more demonstratively re- societies as the salvation of France; ligious than our own. Thousands of but they are useful as pointing out their teachers have been clerical; and where the hope may lie. They point the crucifix and the Virgin have been to a store of humanitarian enthusiasm, included, with tables, chairs, and which has survived the most extreme clocks, as part of the ordinary furni- scepticism in theology, and preserved ture of a school. Only a few months the essence of Christian charity. A ago M. Hérold, the Prefect of the nation whose “better classes Seine, gave general offence, and this mind has a heart as well as a brought on Gambetta's Government a head. Even if at present it seem to not undeserved censure from the Sen- wish for no religion at all, it has ate, by sweeping all these emblems the stuff out of which religion is made; out of the primary schools of Paris in and a time may come when it will be a foolish fit of iconoclasm. But, “if more guided by visions of goodness that in the green tree, what in the than by phantoms of glory. dry?” The present change in the law

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JAMES BONAR.

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A SUNFLOWER.

EARTH hides her secrets deep
Down where the small seed lies,
Hid from the air and skies
Where first it sank to sleep.
To grow, to blossom, and to die-
Ah, who shall know her hidden alchemy?

Quick stirs the inner strife,
Strong grow the powers of life,
Forth from earth's mother breast,
From her dark homes of rest,
Forth as an essence rare
Eager to meet the air
Growth's very being, seen
Here, in this tenderest green.
Drawn by the light above,
Upward the life must move;
Touched by the outward life
Kindles anew the strife,
Light seeks the dark's domain,
Draws thence with quickening pain
New store of substance rare,
Back through each tingling vein
Thrusts the new life again-
Beauty unfolds in air.

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Golden he shines above,
Love wakes, and born of love
All her sweet flowers unfold
In rays of burning gold.
Life then means nought but this-
Trembling to wait his kiss,
Wake to emotion ?
There where he glows she turns
All her gold flowers and burns
With her devotion.
Ah, but when day is done?
When he is gone, her sun,
King of her world and lover!
Low droops the faithful head
Where the brown earth is spread
Waiting once more to cover
Dead hopes and blossoms over.
Earthborn to earth must pass-
Spirits of leaf and grass
Touched by the sun and air
Break into colours rare,
Blossom in love and flowers.
Theirs are the golden fruits-
Earth clings around the roots,
She whispers through the hours,
“I will enfold again
Life's being; love and pain.
Back to the mother breast
Fall as the falling dew,
Once more to pass anew
Into the dreamless rest."

M. F.

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