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H. R. 389, 3688, 51, 702, 259, 3304, 3480, 3563, 3575,
3578, 5345, 3387, 3421, 3474, 3566, 3580, 5349, 258,
3388, 3422, 3475, 3568, 3579, 5351, 627, 3389, 3423,
3472, 3562, 3585, 5348, 3390, 3419, 3476, 3569, 3582,
5343, 3391, 3478, 3571, 3583, 3418, 5350, 628, 3394,

3420, 3481, 3567, 3581, 5344, and 5503
MISCELLANEOUS BILLS REGARDING THE CIVIL RIGHTS
OF PERSONS WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OF

THE UNITED STATES i

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COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

EMANUEL CELLER, New York, Chairman
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania CHAUNCEY W. REED, Illinois
THOMAS J. LANE, Massachusetts

KENNETH B. KEATING, New York
MICHAEL A. FEIGHAN, Ohio

WILLIAM M. MCCULLOCH, Ohio FRANK CHELF, Kentucky

RUTH THOMPSON, Michigan EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana

PATRICK J. HILLINGS, California JAMES B. FRAZIER, JR., Tennessee

SHEPARD J. CRUMPACKER, JR., Indiana
PETER W. RODINO, JR., New Jersey

WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York
WOODROW W. JONES, North Carolina DEAN P. TAYLOR, New York
E. L. FORRESTER, Georgia

USHER L. BURDICK, North Dakota
BYRON G. ROGERS, Colorado

LAURENCE CURTIS, Massachusetts HAROLD D. DONOHUE, Massachusetts JOHN M. ROBSION, JR., Kentucky SIDNEY A. FINE, New York

DEWITT S. HYDE, Maryland JACK B. BROOKS, Texas

RICHARD H. POFF, Virginia
WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia

HUGH SCOTT, Pennsylvania
ROBERT T. ASHMORE, South Carolina
JAMES M. QUIGLEY, Pennsylvania
CHARLES A. BOYLE, Illinois

Bess E. DICK, Staff Director
WILLIAM R. FOLEY, General Counsel
Walter M. BESTERMAN, Legislative Assistant

WALTER R. LEE, Legislative Assistant
CHARLES J. ZINN, Law Revision Counsel
BESSIE M. ORCUTT, Administrative Assistant

SUBCOMMITTEE No. 2

THOMAS J. LANE, Massachusetts, Chairman E. L. FORRESTER, Georgia

WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York
HAROLD D. DONOHUE, Massachusetts USHER L. BURDICK, North Dakota
CHARLES A. BOYLE, Illinois

CHAUNCEY W. REED, Illinois
THOMAS BRODEN, Jr., Counsel

VELMA SMEDLEY, Clerk

II

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Text of bills, H. R. 389, H. R. 3688, H. R. 51, H. R. 702, H. R. 259, H. R.

3304, H. R. 3480, H. R. 3563, H. R. 3575, H. R. 3578, H. R. 5345, H. R.
3387, H. R. 3421, H. R. 3474, H. R. 3566, H. R. 3580, H. R. 5349, H. R.
258, H. R. 3388, H. R. 3422, H. R. 3475, H. R. 3568, H. R. 3579, H. R.
5351, H. R. 627, H. R. 3389, H. R. 3423, H. R. 3472, H, R. 3562, H. R.
3585, H. R. 5348, H. R. 3390, H. R. 3419, H. R. 3476, H. R. 3569, H. R.
3582, H. R. 5343, H. R. 3391, H. R. 3478, H. R. 3571, H. R. 3583, H. R.
3418, H. R. 5350, H. R. 628, H. R. 3394, H. R. 3420, H. R. 3481, H. R.

3567, H. R. 3581, H. R. 5344, H. R. 5503.

Testimony of-

Hon. Emanuel Celler, a Representative in Congress from the State of

New York.

Hon. Adam Clavton Powell, a Representative in Congress from the

State of New York.

Hon. James Roosevelt, a Representative in Congress from the State

of California

Hon. Albert M. Cole, Administrator, Housing and Home Finance

Agency

Hon. Irwin D. Davidson, a Representative in Congress from the

State of New York...

Hon. Barratt O'Hara, a Representative in Congress from the State

of Illinois.

Hon. Charles A. Vanik, a Representative in Congress from the State

of Ohio..

Judge David A. Rose, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith,

Boston, Mass.

Roy Wilkins, executive secretary of the National Association for the

Advancement of Colored People, New York, accompanied by Clarence

Mitchell, director, Washington Bureau of the NAACP.

Will Maslow, general counsel, American Jewish Congress, New York,

Al_Hartnett, secretary-treasurer, International Union of Electrical,

Radio, and Machine Workers, CIO..

Hon. Charles C. Diggs, Jr., a Representative in Congress from the

State of Michigan

William H. Oliver, codirector of the fair practices and antidiscrimina-

tion department, UAW-CIO, accompanied by Paul Sifton, national

legislative representative, UAW-CIO, Washington.

John J. Gunther, legislative representative, Americans for Democratic

Action, Washington.--

Aubrey E. Robinson, Jr., director, American Council on Human

Rights, Washington.

W. Astor Kirk, chairman, department of government, Houston-

Tillatsen College, Austin, Tex..

Statement of

Hon. Peter W. Rodino, Jr., a Representative in Congress from the

State of New Jersey -

Hon. Victor L. Anfuso, a Representative in Congress from the State

of New York

Hon. Hugh J. Addonizio, a Representative in Congress from the State

of New Jersey

Hon. Henry S. Reuss, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Wisconsin

Clarence Mitchell in hearings before the House Committee on Banking

and Currency on housing amendments of 1955.

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Page
272

285
356
360
361
362
363
366

331

Statement of_Continued

American Jewish Congress.
Kenneth M. Birkhead, executive director of the American Veterans

Committee, Washington.
American Jewish Committee-
National Community Relations Advisory Council.
National Lawyers Guild..
National Council of Jewish Women, Inc.--
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.-

American Civil Liberties Union.--

Documents:

An analysis by the Attorney General concerning the proposed Civil

Rights Act of 1949.-

Letter to Hon. Omar Burleson giving views of Attorney General con-

cerning abolition of State poll-tax requirements..

Document from the Housing and Home Finance Agency entitled

“Racial Occupancy Pattern in Low-Rent Housing Projects".

Document from Housing and Home Finance Agency entitled “Facts

Concerning the Rhode Island Plaza Housing Development in

Washington, D. C..

Reprint from the New York Times Magazine, May 22, 1955, entitled

“Can Morality be Legislated?".

Chart entitled "Employment Status of the Civilian Institutional

Population by Color and Sex," supplied by the UAW-CIO.

Newspaper clipping from the Birmingham (Ala.) News of Tuesday,

November 30, 1954, headlined "1,200 White Men Attend Rally

on Desegregation”,

Document entitled "1954 Pennsylvania Study Reveals Greatest Dis-

criminations in Skilled Occupations," supplied by the UAW-CIO.-

Document entitled "1954 Ohio Study of Discrimination in Employ-

ment Shows 'Serious and Pressing Need for Fair Employment

Practices'", supplied by UAW-CIÓ..

Document entitled "1954 Illinois Study Shows Decline in Nonwhite

Percentages of Employees in Firms Šampled,” supplied by UAW-

CIO..

Excerpts from campaign pledges on civil rights supplied by John J.

Gunther, ADA.

Letter from Mike M. Masaoka to Representative Thomas J. Lane

giving views of Japanese-American Citizens League on civil-rights

bills..

Departmental reports:

General Services Administration on H. R. 389 and H. R. 702, dated

May 31, 1955.

Interstate Commerce Commission on H. R. 389, dated June 8, 1955_

Department of Labor on H. R. 51, H. R. 389, H. R. 702, H. Ř. 3688,

and H. R. 5503, dated July 14, 1955.-

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on H. R. 389 and

H. R. 702, dated July 18, 1955.

Department of the Air Force for the Department of Defense on H. R.

389, dated July 19, 1955.---

Civil Service Commission on H. R. 389, dated July 15, 1955_

Interstate Commerce Commission on H. R. 627, dated April 11, 1955

Department of Justice on H. R. 628, dated April 20, 1955. -

Veterans' Administration on H. R. 702, dated July 18, 1955.

Interstate Commerce Commission on H. R. 702, dated June 15, 1955.

Department of the Air Force for the Department of Defense on H. R.

702, dated June 27, 1955...

Interstate Commerce Commission on H. R. 3585, dated April 11, 1955_

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384

CIVIL RIGHTS

WEDNESDAY, JULY 13, 1955

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

SUBCOMMITTEE No. 2 OF THE
COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met at 10 a. m., Hon. Thomas J. Lane (chairman) presiding

Mr. LANE. The committee will please come to order.

Today we begin hearings on civil-rights bills. A great deal of interest has been shown in this legislation. It is our purpose to afford all interested persons the opportunity to present their views. Our plan is to hold hearings today and tomorrow and again on Wednesday, July 27.

Today we are to hear the authors of these various bills. The interested executive departments have been invited to appear and testify tomorrow. On Wednesday, July 27, further testimony will be taken from other interested parties.

Most of you know there has been a great deal of interest in this kind of legislation before the subcommittee. Normally we do not program legislation for hearings until reports from the executive departments and independent agencies have been received. Most of the reports are not yet in on these bills. And, by the way, there are 51 bills being considered by the committee. However, in order to accommodate those who have exhibited a great deal of interest in these bills, we have decided to begin public hearings on them in this session.

In addition to the lack of departmental reports on these various bills, the heavy workload of this subcommittee, and the work load on the full Judiciary Committee has militated against any earlier consideration of these bills. Thus far, this session, this subcommittee has held hearings and taken action on at least 245 pieces of legislation. These include the claim of some $60 million growing out of the Texas City disaster and various other important claims bills. It has been found necessary to meet not only on our regular Wednesday meeting day but we have often been forced to meet two and three, and more, times per week. And, in addition, the full Judiciary Committee has been extremely active. We are honored in having the chairman of the full Judiciary Committee here this morning to be our first witness.

About half of the bills introduced in the House are referred to this Judiciary Committee. I have no doubt we are in a position to carefully consider all bills which are referred to us. My point is that the heavy workload militates against programing legislation before completing the staff work, and before receiving departmental reports.

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