Eyewitness Companions: Weather: Forecasting, Weather Phenomena, Climate Change, Meteorology

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Penguin, 20 .. 2008 - 288 ˹
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Worried about the heat wavecould it be the resultof global warming? One of the most topical issues of our time is the subject ofthe newest Eyewitness Companion: Weather. All you need to know about cloud patterns, violent storms, their causes and repercussions can be found in thisone comprehensive but portable volume. This book will explain the real science behind the weather, from how it works to how it''s changing.
 

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Introduction 12
12
Chapter One HISTORY OF WEATHER 18
19
Introduction 20
21
RECONSTRUCTING THE PAST 22
22
Prehistoric climates 24
24
Religion and folklore 26
26
Climates in ancient times 28
28
Medieval climate changes 30
30
Subtropical arid climates 152
152
Temperate climates 154
154
Mediterranean climates 156
156
Cold continental interior climates 158
158
Polar climates 160
160
LOCAL CLIMATES 164
164
El Niño 166
166
El Niño effects 168
168

Warfare and exploration 32
32
The Scientific Revolution 34
34
Weather in the modern era 36
36
Weather and world affairs 38
38
THE SCIENCE OF METEOROLOGY 40
40
Mapping the weather 42
42
Military meteorology 44
44
Weather and society today 46
46
Chapter Two HOW WEATHER WORKS 48
49
Introduction 50
51
THE EARTHS ENERGY SOURCE 52
52
Composition of the atmosphere 54
54
Heating the atmosphere 56
56
How energy is transferred 58
58
GLOBAL ENERGY TRANSFER 60
60
Air masses 62
62
Weather fronts 64
64
Highs and lows 66
66
Convergence and divergence 68
68
The Coriolis effect 70
70
Global circulation patterns 72
72
Upper circulation and jet streams 74
74
Evaporation and condensation 76
76
Global precipitation patterns 78
78
Chapter Three WEATHER PHENOMENA 80
81
Introduction 82
83
INTRODUCING CLOUDS 84
84
How clouds form 86
86
Lowlevel clouds 88
88
Mediumlevel clouds 94
94
Highlevel clouds 98
98
Orographic and special clouds 102
102
INTRODUCING PRECIPITATION 104
104
Rain 106
106
Snow ice pellets and hail 108
108
Dew and frost 110
110
LOW VISIBILITY 114
114
CYCLONES AND OTHER STORMS 118
118
Tropical cyclones 120
120
Development of a tropical cyclone 122
122
Hurricane Katrina 124
124
Frontal depressions 126
126
Bombs 128
128
Thunder and lightning 130
130
Lightning 132
132
Optical effects 134
134
Tornadoes 136
136
Oklahoma 138
138
Flash floods 140
140
Chapter Four WORLD CLIMATES 142
143
Introduction 144
145
CLIMATE ZONES 146
146
Humid tropical climates 148
148
South America 150
150
North Atlantic Oscillation 170
170
Urban microclimates 172
172
How local winds form 174
174
Local winds 176
176
Mountain climates 178
178
Climate extremes 180
180
Chapter Five WEATHER FORECASTING 182
183
Introduction 184
185
THE SCIENCE OF FORECASTING 186
186
Gathering weather data 188
188
Remote sensing 190
190
Weather instruments 192
192
Computer forecasting 196
196
Ensemble forecasting 198
198
The short to medium term 200
200
The season ahead 202
202
Broadcasting the weather 204
204
Weather in the news 206
206
Forecasts for sailing 210
210
Forecasts for aviation 212
212
Forecasts for sports 214
214
Forecasts for farming 216
216
Forecasts for industry 218
218
Weather and health 220
220
AMATEUR FORECASTING 222
222
Home weather station 224
224
Weather sayings 226
226
Watching the wind 228
228
Cloud watching 230
230
Atmospheric stability 232
232
Chapter Six CLIMATE CHANGE 234
235
Introduction 236
237
THE CLIMATE SYSTEM 238
238
Reconstructing past climates 240
240
Early climate records 242
242
Climate monitoring 244
244
Evidence of global warming 246
246
The human contribution 248
248
Climate modeling 250
250
Modeling recent change 252
252
Predicting future climates 256
256
Extreme events 258
258
Dangerous sudden change 260
260
Impact on life on Earth 262
262
TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE 264
264
Lobbying for change 266
266
Sustainable energy 268
268
Lowcarbon solutions 270
270
Geogengineering 272
272
Glossary 274
274
Useful resources 280
280
Index 281
281
Acknowledgments 287
287
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