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this year, as heretofore, been used extensively by other departments of the University. With the completion of the new buildings this summer, it is hoped that it will not be necessary to use the Medical building so extensively for outside subjects and the laboratory attendants may then be able to give more time to their regular work.

In all departments of the University it is extremely difficult to obtain properly qualified men of high grade as assistants and instructors and it is just as difficult to retain them for any length of time. In the Ithaca division of the Medical College especially in tbe departments of Anatomy, Histology and Physiology, this difficulty is I believe, greater than in the other colleges of the University. The work in Medicine at Ithaca covers only the subjects of the first two years and it is therefore necessary to secure as Instructors to devote their whole time to the work men whose interests are in these fundamental subjects and who wish to do additional work in them or who have planned to devote their lives to them. With Medical Colleges situated in or near large cities, it is possible to obtain for these positions, men who can devote part of their time to practice or advanced and research work in practical and applied branches. In most of the other Colleges here in Ithaca with the four years course, instructors are able to devote themselves to advanced work along practical lines in preparation for commercial work or to work for an advanced degree. Moreover, although the profession of Medicine is greatly overcrowded, there are great opportunities for the well-trained man of high grade. We expect our graduates, who have had hospital training, to be prepared to start for themselves in the successful practice of Medicine. It is necessary therefore, that we should have as instructors of these students, men of much training and ability and these men are sure of success in practice. There are great opportunities for scientific work along clinical lines and the financial and other returns in medical practice are many times greater than in medical teaching. Besides all this, within the past few years, the great strides in medical science have opened up many positions for those with instincts for medical research, such as the positions in the Rockefeller Institute and other institutions of a similar character. The teaching positions have also been greatly increased by the many additional medical colleges throughout the country that have put the work of the first two years on a sound scientific basis. These opportunities for teaching and practice have attracted many men so that it is increasingly difficult each year to secure men with proper qualifications and it is also increasingly difficult to retain them. With us at the present time, there is still another difficulty due to the small size of the departments. On this account, the resignation of assistants and instructors often causes a serious embarassment, since the details of instruction as well as the executive work falls heavily upon one or two who must also spend much time in breaking in the new assistants. This leaves the men of highest rank and best training giving practically their whole time to routine and elementary training and having very little time for advanced students or for their own advanced and research work. The ideals which the Cornell University Medical College has set out to fulfill demand that we should meet this issue and that as soon as possible, some way should be devised whereby there can be assistant professorships in the departments of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Physiology, Pharmacology, Pathology and Bacteriology, or that the instructors can be given sufficient compensation so that they may be retained for a longer time.

The numerous changes in the staff of instruction noted above have had their greatest effect upon the amount of research which the various professors and instructors have been able to accomplish. As regards undergraduate instruction to medical students, the work has been otherwise normal and satisfactory.

In the department of Anatomy, the instruction is mainly given in the first term, although advanced work is offered throughout the year. In the second term there is a course on topographical and applied Anatomy for the second year students, in which the work of the preceding year and a half is reviewed and the medical and surgical aspects are particularly emphasized in such a way as to closely connect the subject with the work of the next two years.

The new members of the staff this year consisted of Assistant Demonstrator Otto L. Goehle, A.B., M.D., a graduate of the Cornell University Medical College in 1905, who stayed with us until Japuary when he left to take up his work in the New York Hospital ; of Assistant Demonstrator Joseph H. Hathaway, A.M., M.D., who devoted the second term to teaching in the department of Histology and Embryology ; and of Assistant Demonstrator, William F. Jelke, Ph.B., M.D., who resigned on April ist, because of ill health. Dr. Elgin A. Gray who had been in the department of Anatomy for two years resigned on March 17th to enter the practice of Medicine. Last year as well as this year, he had held a position at the Gymnasium as Physical Examiner. It is proposed for next year, that the instructor in the Medical College who acts as Medical Examiner at the Gymnasium shall devote more time to the Gymnasium work than heretofore.

The registration this year is as follows:
Course 1, First Year Dissection.--

35
Course 2, Second Year Dissection ---

26 Course 3, Topographical and Regional Anatomy

23 Course 4, Thoracic and Abdominal Viscera

26 Course 6, Advanced and Research Work.

3 Course 8, Structure of the Nervous System.

26 Our method of embalming together with the cold storage plant has made it possible to continuously accumulate dissecting material so that we now have a supply constantly on hand. Several additions have been made to the specimens which are used for demonstration and student study, but it will be necessary to constantly add to these specimens in order to replace those which are used up and also to complete our collection.

In the department of Histology and Embryology, the work is mainly given in the second term, although the course

on the Structure, Development, and Physiology of the Nervous System, which course is given jointly by the departments of Anatomy, Histology, and Physiology, occupies the latter part of the first term at the same time that the gross Anatomy of the Nervous System is given, while the Physiology occupies the first part of the second term. Advanced and reseach work extends throughout the year. Professor Gage especially commends the work of the assistants, which has been done with an enthusiasm and zeal which brings success.” Assistant Effie A. Read, A.B., has completed her third year of teaching in this department, proving herself a most efficient teacher. Her research work on the olfactory nerves and true olfactory epithelium has been a most successful piece of work. It was especially difficult, requiring a thorough training in technique and an ability to meet many new problems with right methods. Assistant Joseph H. Hathaway, A.M., M.D., served during the second term only. Application was made during the spring for a man especially trained in histological technique to undertake an important piece of work in the middle west. Assistant E. V. Sweet, A.B., was recommended for this position and the place left vacant by his resignation was filled by Mr. J. R. Pawling, A.B. While the number of students doing advanced work in the department has been small, the results have been most gratifying.

It has been recognized for some time that the regular courses for Medical and Veterinary students in Histology and Embryology which are planned as a direct preparation for their later work are not best suited for students in Arts who are preparing to do advanced work in Histology and Embryology or Biology or as teachers of physiology or biology in the schools. This year, the department offered a new course to meet the needs of these students, in which the elements of Histology and Embryology are given and special stress is laid upon the methods of investigation, the aim being to make independent workers.

The registration this year has been as follows:
Course 1, Microscopy, Histology, and Embryology 43
Course 2, Histology, and Embryology for Arts.

19
Course 4, Advanced Work and Thesis.-..

4 Course 8, Histology of the Nervous System..

-27 In the department of Physiology and Pharmacology, the work is given throughout the year. In Physiology, in the first term, there is a course for students in Arts, the work for the Medical students coming in the second term. In Pharmacology, the work on the physiological action of drugs comes in the first term, while the materia medica and pharmacy comes in the secord term. This distribution of work was necessary to avoid duplication of apparatus. The work for the first year students, which last year, was given as three separate but closely related courses, was this year, concentrated into one course counting eight University hours and distributed over fifteen actual hours which were devoted to lecture, quiz, demonstration, and laboratory work according to the special demands of each division of the subject. The flexibility thus gained has been of great value and a complete unification of results was obtained. The work is arranged in a somewhat similar way in the departments of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology. Among Dr. Kingsbury and his instructors, there was a rotation in direct responsibility for the conduct of the different divisions of the subject thus permitting greater enthusiasm in the teaching, greater concentration in the work and closer specialization without sacrificing the unity of the course. Such an arrangement is only possible when the teachers are individually working along different lines, but this demands close oversight from the head of the department in order to secure unity of the work. The laboratory directions by Dr. Kingsbury and the amount of apparatus which was available this year have also aided in making the work more systematic and precise.

This year the department has given for the first time, an elementary course in human physiology for students other than those of the medical college. This, like the special course in Histology and Embryology is intended for students in the biological sciences and for those who intend to teach in the secondary schools. An additional course in experimental physiology offers an opportunity for laboratory work to this same class of students. In this latter course, the students are especially prepared to do advanced work in the department. In the advanced course, as noted in the tabulation below, there were four students this year. The department is still lacking in much apparatus needed for this kind of work. In the preparation of the special apparatus, a mechanic is essential. The work, now, must be sent outside, which is unsatisfactory, or must be done by the head of the department, or the instructors which is not economical or desirable.

The staff of instruction has this year, been unusually satisfactory. Instructor Mervin Dresbach, M.S., M.D., with his experience as a teacher, together with his eagerness to help whenever and wherever needed, has rendered his services most acceptable. Instructor Omar Gullion, A. M., had independent charge of the course on the physiological action of drugs in the first term, which he conducted with great success. He is especially qualified as a teacher and investigator in Pharmacology and it is greatly to be regretted that he will not return next year. Assistant Harry C. Luke, Ph.G., goes to New York to complete his medical course. There is great need of more instructors and of higher positions in this department covering as it does the two subjects of Physiology and Pharmacology.

The registration this year, in the department is as follows:
Course 1, Physiology of Movement, Sensation, Circulation,
and Respiration

26
Course 3, Elementary Human Physiology

14
Course 4, Physiology of Digestion, Absorption, Metabol-

ism and Excretion
Course 7, Advanced Physiology

4
Course 8, Physiology of the Nervous System..

26 Course 9, Experimental Physiology

4
Course 1, Materia Medica -

23
Course 2, Pharmacy
Course 3, Physiological Action of Drugs.

25

22

21

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