the public estimate of the work ; but it is more important that every kind of work be unexcelled for truthfulness and effectiveness. We need several departments that are yet practically untouched; but there is greater need that all departments now established and projected be thoroughly officered and equipped.

The second step is to seggregate the different fields of work, each field with its own organization. These fields are three : (1) college and university teaching ; (2) extension work; (3) research and experiment. Each of these departments should have its own staff, devoting itself directly and consecutively to the problems within its field.

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So far as entrance requirements and other statutory matters go, the four years' course in the College of Agriculture is fully equivalent to that offered in the College of Arts and Sciences. It is expected that the equipment will soon be adequate to the working out of these ideals in the most thorough-going way in every department. In order to accomplish these ends, however, all students pursuing the regular courses must be of standard academic grade. This means that students who are unprepared to pursue any course of instruction must be cared for otherwise. Such students may enter as specials.

In all the great agricultural departments, as agronomy, horticulture, animal husbandry, in which mature judgment of affairs is needed, it should be the policy to place no class in full charge of an officer of the grade of instructor. Assistants and instructors should aid the professors, not have charge of classes on their own responsibility and in their own name. All these great departments, therefore, must be supplied with more than one professor,—with as many professors, in fact, as the growth of the work demands; and every effort should be made to secure men strong enough to occupy full professorships. Every department should be strengthened with men until each man can devote his best energies to his own special work and until the department itself stands unexcelled.

High-grade collegiate work and high-class equipment lead naturally to postgraduate studies. In these studies. the College of Agriculture at Cornell University should excel. Even at present, the number of students pursuing postgraduate and special advanced work exceeds forty, which is itself a larger body of students than is present in some agricultural institutions in all departments. About 15 per cent. of the students in the Graduate Department of Cornell University are prosecuting agricultural work. There is every reason why this work should be encouraged. In a short time, some of the officers must give practically all their time to postgraduate students; and eventually it may be necessary to establish such work as a separate field or entity. It is for Cornell University to establish a standard for postgraduate study in agriculture, for there seems to be little understanding of what such work should be.

It may be useful to display the kinds of academic teaching which a really vital agricultural college should cover. While it is the purpose of such an institution to train men and women rather than to develop subjects, yet the subject-matter is the means of training, and the pursuit of it should have direct effect on the business of farming itself and on the meaning of country-life. The primary or fundamental field in which a college of agricultnre should operate, so far as subject-matter is concerned, is in increasing production. Before pursuing the special agricultural subjects, however, the student should be well grounded in fundamental subjects. Aside from studies developing self-expression (as language and drawing) the student should have training in such sciences as physics, chemistry, geology, biology, physiology, meteorology, climatology. Leaving out of count, in this discussion, the fundamental arts and sciences, the special classes of subjects that are related directly to production are as follows: A—The crop-growing group; including

(1) Fertility of the land (agricultural chemistry, "Soils")
(2) The breeding of plants
(3) The diseases and disabilities of plants
(4) Plans and practices in the growing and handling of

kinds of crops (applications of agronomy, horticulture,

B–The animal-growing group; including

(1) The feeding of animals
(2) The breeding of animals
(3) The diseases and ailments of animals
(4) Plans and practices in the rearing and handling of

kinds of animals (including applications of collegiate
departments known as animal husbandry, poultry hus-

bandry, and the like). Aside from these central and more or less technical agricultural subjects, there are other departments corollary to them or essential to an institution that stands for agriculture and country-life in the broadest way. These other lines of teaching are as follows:

1. Farm Mechanics and Machinery—The use of machinery has now come to be a permanent part of the equipment for good agriculture, and the kinds of machines are legion. The principles that are involved in farm machinery, and the practice, cannot be adequately discussed in most colleges of mechanic arts or engineering, for such colleges have another and special point of view. Several of the colleges of agriculture are now developing departments of farm machinery. The subject needs emphasis in the East as well as in the West. In fact, it needs greater emphasis here; machinery has been developed mostly for easy conditions and large areas: it now needs to be developed for the more difficult and complex eastern conditions. For the present, however, our own College of Agriculture cannot establish such a department, as the existing departments must first be fully equipped.

2. Rural Engineering—Under this term are included such field engineering problems as have to do specially with agricultural enterprises, as surveying with reference to land measure, drainage, irrigation, road-making, water-supplies, and many of the lesser problems of bridge building, traction development, and other construction. Nearly all the land of the country is to be in farms (using the word farm to include organized and managed forests), and the complete utilization of this land will demand the expenditure of much engineering skill. The engineer will probably contribute as much as any other man to the making of the ideal countrylife. Professional engineering problems must be left to the technical engineering schools; but training must also be provided from the agricultural point of view and in connection with other agricultural studies. These agricultural engineering subjects are bound to multiply. Irrigation, for example, is not to be confined to arid regions; it must be added to humid regions not only to overcome the effect of drought but to cause the land to produce to its utmost. Irrigation for humid climates presents a special set of problems, for it must be intimately associated with drainage, and these problems are not yet thoroughly understood. The name “rural engineering" now appears in the curricula of some agricultural colleges. We cannot yet develop this range of work at Cornell.

3. Rural Art-Almost from the first, the agricultural colleges have included landscape gardening in their curricula. In fact, they are the only institutions that have taught it. The subject is considered to be their special province. To this day there is only one professional school covering this field and that is recently organized at Harvard. At least twenty-two of the land-grant institutions are now giving instruction in these subjects.

As a country-life and agricultural snbject, landscape gardening (or landscape architecture ) has to do primarily with the making of the farm property (both the home and the farm) attractive and artistic. In a larger way, it has to do with the preserving and improving of natural scenery, with village improvement, and with the general elevation of taste. The artistic handling of ordinary farm properties must be left largely to the agricultural schools and colleges, because it cannot pay sufficient fees to warrant a professional man to undertake it ; moreover, the desire for such handling must be aroused and fostered by educating the man who lives on the land. A good beginning in this outdoor art field has already been made at Cornell and the work should by all means be continued and extended. The entire farm area of the University should be laid out with reference to good taste, making it practically a rural park without in any way interfering with its agricultural utilization,-in fact, such lay-out should increase its agricultural utility. This farm area should be organically a part of the entire University domain, campus and farm developing harmoniously and consistently along broad and correct artistic lines; and all this, in turn, should harmonize with the development of Ithaca and the adjoining country.

4. Rural Architecture.--Rural architecture is for the most part hopelessly inefficient and therefore hopelessly inartistic. Real farm architecture will not be handled by professional architects because there are no fees in it; and, as in the case of rural art in general, the public sense must be quickened. Moreover, the problems in farm architecture are essentially agricultural problems. This is particularly true of barns and stables. Practically all barn buildings must be rebuilt on fundamentally new lines if farming is to be an efficient business. In the past, barns and stables have been built merely to house and protect produce and animals, rather than to accomplish certain definite progressive ends. The modern ideas of sanitation, whereby dust is to be eliminated, are revolutionizing stable construction, to say nothing of means of securing cleanliness in other ways, of ventilation, of sunlight, water-supplies, and other necessities. Probably the best ventilated buildings now constructed are the modern cow-stables.

5. Technology and Manufacture.-Several great departments or kinds of work will develop in this field. Dairy manufacture has already reached a very high degree of development in several agricultural colleges, including our own, and is completely established in the public confidence, although it was a doubtful innovation only a few years ago. This intelligent dairy inanufacture has had an unmeasurable effect on dairy production and products. Therefore it is not too much to expect that comparable results will follow in other lines of agricultural manufacture, particularly in the making of commercial products and the utilization of waste in the great fruit industries.

6. Domestic and Personal Questions.—The home as well as the land must be reached. The home questions are of two categories : the internal, comprising housekeeping and householding subjects ; the external, in which the home is considered as part of the community in its relation to school, church, organizations, and various social questions. The farm home should be the ideal place in which to train boys and girls. It should be comfortable, attractive and sanitary. Human food should receive as much scientific attention as food for the farm animals. Woman's work should be alleviated and elevated. The work needs reorganization. Mechanical appliances must be brought to its aid. The miscellaneous activities that center about the home have been assembled into courses of study. These courses have received various collective names, none of which is good, because the subjects are miscellaneous and not capable of being closely welded. Of these names, I like "Home Economics" best. After giving much study to the general subject, I have come to the conclusion that we must have a course in home economics in the College of Agriculture (a beginning has already been made), but I doubt whether we should have a department of home economics. By this I mean to say that the different subjects comprising such a course should be taught by the various specialists in the University, the special home-making subjects now unprovided for to be handled by one or more special teachers, at least one of whom should preferably be a woman and have charge of the assembling of the instruction. This woman should be a specialist and should teach only in her specialty. All the work should be of positive collegiate or university grade, strictly comparable in every way with other college work, and be founded on good preparation in the fundamental sciences and arts.

7. Economic and Social Subjects. The farm is a part of the

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