ing the best method for sale of market milk, a question on which there is great diversity of opinion, yet one of great importance to the dairy interests as well as to the consuming public.

Gradually, similar work will develop in horticultural and other fields.

8. Surveys-Certain industries and certain regions need to be studied as they actually present themselves, for the purpose of discovering their status and needs, to the end that suggestions may be made for betterment. Much of the first extension work of the College of Agriculture was of this kind, and several expository bulletins were published, as "Apricot Growing in Western New York” (No. 71); "Impressions of the Peach Industy in Western New York” (No. 74); “Some Grape Troubles of Western New York” (No. 76); “A Plum Scale in Western New York" (No. 83); The Recent Apple Failures of Western New York” (No. 84). Probably no publications of the College ever have been more in demand, and practically all these bulletins are now out of print.

At present, however, the greatest need is for a detailed survey of the condition of an industry in some special geographical region. Two publications have recently been made of such pieces of work : Bulletin 226, “An Apple Orchard Survey of Wayne County''; Bulletin 229, "An Apple Orchard Survey of Orleans County". A similar survey of Niagara County is in progress. We are now undertaking & general survey of the agricultural status of Tompkins County. This county is representative of a large area of hill country in the State, and the recommendations that result from the study are likely to have wide application. For this year, the inquiry will probably be confined to certain townships representing important soil types. A survey is also projected of the condition of certain stock interests in the central part of the State. The entire State needs detailed study in this spirit, the inquiries being closely correlated with studies of surface geology, climate, soil types, and with economic and social conditions.

9. Inquiries in Economic and Social Questions-A natural corollary of an academic department of rural economy are methodical studies of the actual economic status of agriculture in the State and the social status of the agriculturist. A mailing-list should be more than a lot of names to which publications are to be sent. Every person who is the recipient of the publications of the College of Agriculture should give personal information that the College may use in studies of the agricultural status. A mailing-list, in other words, should carry certain specific information.

It is necessary that we completely reorganize not only our mailing-lists themselves but the methods of making and handling them ; with this reorganization it is intended that the cards contain facts that will be of service to the College. I expect to employ at least one person whose entire time shall be given to the mailing department and the collecting of data by means of it.

The mailing-list is only one of the agencies for the collecting of data bearing on economic and social questions. In time, colleges will make surveys expressly for the purpose of studying these phases.

10. Cooperation with Organizations-Every organized agricultural interest should contribute to the general welfare in an educational way. Without in the least interfering with any organized effort (but rather aiding it), the College of Agriculture can be useful in cooperation. The College should have relation with every agricultural society and club, that it may study the educational features and spread them. This College now has such relation with the granges of the state (the membership of the State Grange is above 70,000 and is growing rapidly) and many other organizations ; but lack of men and means seriously limits the work. The State Grange now provides six scholarships in the College of Agriculture. Stafford Grange (Genesee County) provides one scholarship. The fairs are, or should be, educational institutions. At some of the county and local fairs, as well as at the State fair, we are now interested in securing exhibits of children's work, and otherwise. The rural churches and the colleges of agriculture also should cooperate in many ways. Village improvement societies, women's clubs in villages and the open country, experiment clubs, and other organized bodies are all within the field of a college extension department.

11. Organization of Extension Interests.-A natural consequence of extension work will be some kind of an organization of the participants to concrete and forward it. In several states and in the province of Ontario, organizations have already been perfected, but so far they devote themselves to experiment work.

At Cornell, the Experimenters' League is a similar institution. The Agricultural Experimenter's League of New York was organized March 3rd, 1903, by students in the College of Agriculture. The constitution states that “The object of this League shall be: for the promotion of cooperative experiments in the various departments of farm husbandry ; for the promotion of intercourse among

those studying farm problems; for the advancement of agricultural education ; for the collection and dissemination of data relating to country life; and for the purpose of supporting legislation favorable to the promotion of these objects.” There are two classes of members, active and associate. Active membership (for which the fee is one dollar) is open to those who are residents of New York State who have been enrolled as students in Cornell University, or in any college or school of agriculture, or those professionally engaged in agricultural science. Associate membership (for which the annual fee is fifty cents) is open to others who desire to cooperate in the work of the League. Associate members have all the privileges of active members except holding office and voting for officers.

The membership of the League has been as follows:

[blocks in formation]

each year.


This membership includes all those who have paid their dues
There have been 134 different

connected with the organization as active members and 50 as associate members. Several meetings were held in the winter of 1903 for the purpose of organization. Since that time three annual meetings have been held at the College. In addition to business, reports of experiments and addresses by agricultural workers have been given at these annual meetings. In time this League will no doubt find itself taking a field broader than its name. In fact, it should develop into an agricultural organization of the first magnitude and importance, meeting once each year at the College of Agriculture ; and it should be a part of the extension work of the College.

12. Lectures and Itinerant Schools.-From the extension department of a college of agriculture should proceed lectures, iustitutes, conventions, and travelling schools that carry the educational impulse and the latest knowledge to the people, all in charge of persons who are specially trained for the work. The demand on teachers and experimenters for such work as this consumes much of their energy, makes serious inroads on time that is supposed to be devoted to other purposes, and often sacrifices the interests of students. On the other hand, a college of agriculture cannot withdraw from the people and still be able to serve them. The travelling lecture work belongs to the extension department rather than to the academic department. When specially trained men are provided, the demand on other teachers and experimenters will not be felt seriously.

13. Correspondence.--As a result of all this effort in many fields, the correspondence assumes great proportions and becomes of unusual importance. The College of Agriculture now sends out about 60,000 letters a year. The College has ten type-writing machines, and as many operators; and extra help is employed when correspondence is very heavy.

14. Publication--The publications of the New York State College of Agriculture in the extension department are of five kinds :

1. Junior Naturalist Monthly. For the year 1905-6, nine numbers have been issued (monthly for nine months), together with six supplements on gardens.

2. Four quarterly issues of the Home Nature-study Course, with seventeen supplements during the year.

3. Bulletins of the Farmers' Reading-Course (monthly from November to March):

No. 26-Tasteful Farm Buildings

27-Tasteful Farm Yards
28—The Plan of the Farmhouse
29-Water Supplies for Farm Residences

30-Barns and Outbuildings 4. Bulletins of the Farmers' Wives' Reading-Course (monthly from November to March): No. 16—Programs and Evenings with Farmers' Wives' Read

ing Clubs
17-Flour and Bread
18–Dust as Related to Food
19—The Selection of Food

20-Canning and Preserving 5. Bulletins of the Experiment Station, recording the publishable data of the demonstrations and tests, as follows to May 1, from the beginning of the fiscal year, October 1, 1905 (other bulletins are prepared):

No. 235–Cooperative Spraying Experiments

236—The Blight Canker of Apple Trees
239—Some Diseases of Beans

[blocks in formation]

In March, 1887, President Cleveland approved the Hatch Act' establishing an agricultural experiment station in every state and appropriating $15,000 for the purpose. Nine-tenths of this fund, by the terms of the State law, come to Cornell University for the establishing and maintaining of an experiment station. One-tenth is received by the New York State Experiment Station at Geneva, to enable that Station to secure the franking privilege on its publications. On March 16, 1906, President Roosevelt approved the Adams Bill, which, at the expiration of five years, will duplicate the annount received by each state for its experiment station. By concurrent resolution, the present legislature distributes this new fund on the same basis as the first fund.

In five years the fund accruing to the State College of Agriculture from the federal government for experiment and investigation will amount to $27,000 annually. This fund should be set aside sacredly for research on fundamental questions. The making of "tests” and “trials,” the publication of mere advice and information, do not constitute research; these efforts belongs to the extension work. The Experiment Station should have its own distinct organization. The academic department can do the teaching: the extension department can handle the daily problems and perform the educational work throughout the state ; the Experiment Station can devote itself wholly to real investigation.

The sum of $27,000 will not maintain a large experiment station; but the station can be thoroughly good as far as it goes. Either of two policies may be pursued: (1) several assistants may be employed as subordinate officers to the regular college departments, but devoting their time to the experiment station; or (2) a few mature men, capable of occupying full chairs or departments, may be secured. I decidedly prefer the latter. At least half of the en tire fund should be set aside for maintenance and publication, allowing perhaps four or five strong men to devote their lives to research. In the technical subject-matter, these men may be associated with the corresponding department in the college department. To one of these officers, I hope to delegate the responsibility of looking after, assembling, coordinating and publishing all research, experiment and demonstration work in the College, in whatever department it may be performed.

The investigational work is not now organized as an entity,

« ͹˹Թõ