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work done in the summer have deterred some who might otherwise have attended. The group of students with conditions in their work consists of two classes ; those who have fallen behind through misfortune rather than fault, and those who have deliberately neglected their work during the winter with the idea that they could make it up in the summer. The latter class is altogether undesirable, and not infrequently individual members of it do no better in the summer than in the winter session. For the first of the two classes mentioned the summer session affords a valuable opportunity. Equally valuable is the opportunity for the earnest student who does not wish to be idle for the three months of the “long vacation," or for him whose work is not exactly in time with the regular year. These are among our best students every summer. The character of the students this year has been by common consent of all the faculty unusually fine. They have been serious men and women with well-fixed purposes. I am happy to say that they have had practically no criticism to offer, but have uniformly expressed much praise for what the University has done, and that all have gone away with feelings of satisfaction and with the desire to return in some succeeding year.

NEW COURSES THIS YEAR-MANUAL TRAINING

The work of the session has been very satisfactory indeed. The courses of instruction given in previous years have been maintained with efficiency and call for no comment. What is new in the work of this year is as follows:

In Education there has been an extension of the work offered by the inclusion of courses in School Organization and Management, in Special Method in Common School Branches, and in The Courses of Study in the Elementary School. These have been attended by a goodly number of students and should be provided every year. In English, following the suggestion made last year by Dr. DeGarmo, instruction was offered in Composition and Rhetoric by Mr. Theodore C. Mitchill of the Boys' High School, Brooklyn, N. Y. His work was marked by the skill, enthusiasm and energy which have won for him the reputation of being one of the best teachers of English in the country. With his large experience in the actual high school work in English he was able to make all his instruction bear directly upon the immediate problems presented in the class room. A course in Practical Photography, including the making of lantern slides and of

photo-micrographs, was added to the courses previously given in the department of Physics, and met with approval. It appeals to teachers of science, in whose work photography plays an important part, and to others who wish to use it for illustrative purposes. Two courses in Drawing and Design were given with marked success by Mr. Charles Wellington Furlong, in whom are combined in a most unusual manner the powers of an artist and a teacher. The results of this year make it certain that these courses should be continued.

In accordance with the recommendations of Professor Kimball last year a course in the Theory and Practice of Manual Training was organized this year. Cornell University offers a particularly fine opportunity for this kind of work in her unmatched shops and drawing rooms, but hitherto little has been attempted besides instruction in the actual work of the shop or drawing room. This year the educational side of this great field of education has been made prominent, and under the efficient guidance of Professor Kimball and Mr. Dean a most successful and well-rounded course has been given. A broad and philosophic attitude was taken by the instructors and the work was made to fit closely to the lectures in other lines of education. The students were enthusiastic in their praise of the advantages offered, and the results obtained showed how thoroughly the whole plan had been thought out and carried through. Mr. Dean brought much experience to his task and an enthusiasm which was most stimulating.

He says among other things in reporting on the work :

"Eighteen students, 9 men and 9 women, elected the course of whom 14 are now teachers in public or private schools. I have been very much gratified with the improvement shown by these students, not merely in the manual skill expended in their shop work, but also in the improvement in the attitude which they have taken toward the whole field of education. Many of them have elected the lectures given in the department of education. As a result of my study of the situation during the session I submit the following suggestions:

Teachers of the so-called academic branches attending the summer session ought to be encouraged to elect some constructive work. Manual training is not merely shop work. It is a part of the whole field of education and as such should be recognized. Every teacher should have presented to him not only the theory and purpose of manual training as a part of his general educational equipment, but ought also to receive some training in the practical expression of this newer education. Constructive work is being assigned a central position in the public schools. To the present force of instruction there should be added a capable primary teacher with a knowledge of elementary constructive work. This teacher should be engaged primarily with a view to his fitness to apply and coordinate constructive work with the regular academic studies. More and more the class teacher is required to add to her attainments a working knowledge of constructive work. Such a teacher must be taught to see the value of the constructive work as a form of expression for other primary school activities. The work in manual training appeals directly to the teacher who must command all the subjects of her grade including constructive work and to the special teacher who has charge of one or two special subjects in the manual arts. There is further a third class whose interest in the general subject should be aroused. Every student of education should know something of the theory, the object and the practical applications of the principles involved in constructive work. In any future plans for the development of instruction in manual training arrangements should be made that will enable this class of teachers to participate in the work."

GENERAL LECTURES-SAGE CHAPEL SERVICES

In addition to the regular instruction given in the various departments eight public lectures were given by Professors Titchener, Willcox, Bailey, Jenks, Assistant Librarian Austen, President White, Superintendent Stevens and Mr. Dean. An effort was made to give continuity to the evening lectures. Those given on successive Wednesdays dealt with problems connected with immigration, and more particularly with the educational problems arising from it. Two of the Friday lectures treated of industrial education. Members of the summer session were thus enabled to get an accurate idea of the great development of educational activity in trade schools, evening schools and special schools of various kinds. Miss Wysard, assisted by others, carried out with success the organ recitals twice each week. Professor Corson's readings on Monday evenings were appreciated by large audiences.

Religious services, inaugurated last year, were held in Sage Chapel every Sunday morning. The Reverend George William Knox, of the Union Theological Seminary, New York, officiated throughout the session. The sermons were admittedly among the best ever preached in the chapel and the congregations were of good size. They were composed, however, quite largely of regular residents of the University community and of Ithaca. I think that comparatively few of the summer students care for such a service. Probably the majority of those who wish to attend church go to their own church in Ithaca, and for the others the attractions of forest and field outweigh those of the chapel. On the other hand, a voluntary service at evening, and out of doors, has attracted a large attendance. It may be wiser to provide another year a service more like the vesper service of the winter term, or to have one of the organ recitals given on Sunday evening.

GENERAL HIGH CHARACTER OF THE WORK In general I feel warranted in saying that all connected with the session have felt that the quality of work was high and entirely worthy the best traditions of the University. Professor Titchener in his address at the opening of the term fixed a high standard, and gave all of us much inspiration for the best achievement. The notion that "summer work” is, or must necessarily be, of a lower grade still exists in some places. The work may be different to some extent from that of a winter session, but any of it for which official recognition is given is of at least as high a quality as work at other times. In this connection I must say that it is unfortunate that a course conducted by one of the most distinguished scholars of Cornell should be officially characterized as unworthy of recognition. The College of Arts and Sciences loses by such action an opportunity to extend its influence.

For the future I see no reason to doubt the steady increase in growth and usefulness of the session. The scope of the work will of necessity require some extension, though I think the general plan now followed will be sufficient for some time. The summer session presents one of the most efficient ways for the University to meet its duties to the public school system and to the State.

Respectfully submitted,

GEORGE P. BRISTOL.

Director of the Summer Session.

APPENDIX XIII

REPORT OF THE WARDEN OF SAGE COLLEGE

To the President of the University:

SIR :-I have the honor to submit my report as Warden of Sage College for the year 1905-6.

The number of students living in Sage College during the first term was 167, in Sage Cottage 42 ; during the second term in Sage College 166, in Sage Cottage, 38. The total number, therefore, in the two dormitories for the first term was 209, for the second term 203, as against a total of 195 for each term of last year. Both the College and the Cottage in fact were filled to the point of overcrowding during the first term; the withdrawal of several women from the Uuiversity has left vacant during the latter half of the year a few of the less desirable places. The number of rooms already engaged by old and new students for the coming year is larger than at the corresponding time in any previous year of the existence of the University.

Certain alterations and improvements have been made in the buildings. An entirely new system of wires and fixtures for electric lighting has been installed in the College, safer and more convenient than the old. New shower baths and tubs have been set up in the Gymnasium and on different floors where they seemed to be needed. Arrangements have been completed for the purchase of new furnishiifgs for all of the small reception rooms and of a new carpet for the drawing-room at the Cottage. An Oriental rug has been bought for one of the Warden's rooms and a set of book shelves constructed for her use. An auxiliary line from the Ithaca Telephone has been brought into her private office. A card directory has been added to the equipment of the College office in which is filed a copy of the weekly schedule of every Sage student making it possible to reach one in case of emergency at any hour of the day.

The health of the inmates of the College and Cottage has, upon the whole, maintained a good average. Such patients as have been

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