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enforcement of the requirements for admission). The changes in other Colleges are unimportant.

HALLS FOR STUDENTS

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For this student population, now numbering thousands, Cornell University has not a single hall of residence excepting the Sage College for women, which, with its annex, accommodates about half of the 411 women graduates and undergraduates enrolled in the University. While the intellectual and scholarly spirit and organization of the University are on a high plane, the social life leaves much to be desired. The great majority of the young men -all except those in fraternities-are scattered in boarding and lodging houses throughout the city, nor is it possible without halls of residence to organize them as social communities which shall foster and enjoy the habitual personal intercourse, the comradeship, the solidarity, the common consciousness which spring in the main from close and constant social contact due to living together under a common roof and sitting together at a common table. The experience of American students seems to show that the fraternity house, accommodating two or three dozen students, presents, in the matter of size and arrangement, an ideal for the residential hall : it is large enough for a community and not too large for intimate acquaintance and friendship; it provides studies, bedrooms, bath rooms, kitchen, dining room, and common rooms (the size and number of which might perhaps be reduced in houses owned by the University). Thirty of these houses would accommodate about 1,000 young men. The cost of building them would undoubtedly be greater than the cost of ten larger halls each accommodating one hundred students, with a separate dining hall, like the dormitories and halls of Harvard and Yale. But in this age of mechanism and biguess, it is

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especially desirable that the universities should possess the most favorable conditions for the development of manhoodfor the moulding of man moral and social as well as of man intellectual. And such communities of 25 or 35 young men would, the President has come to believe, be more fruitful seed-p'ots of personality than the conventional dormitory with one or two hundred chambers, but no dining hall or common room. Either, however, would be a great improvement on the present condition at Cornell. But for either the University must await gifts from the friends of higher education. The experience of Harvard University shows that the endowments of the institution could not advantageously, or perhaps even safely, be invested in residential halls.' And so the President repeats with new emphasis what he wrote a dozen years ago–in the Report for 1894-1895-when the University had only 1,689 students as against 4,225 in 1906-1907.

"After endowments for the establishment of chairs and departments, no gifts to the University could be more helpful than halls of residence or dormitories for students. This is a form of benefaction popular with philanthropists who have an honorable ambition to connect their names permanently with great institutions of learning. Nowhere in America is there such a grand field for the gratification of this ambition as at Cornell University, where the first hall of residence is still to be erected. Built upon the campus, with no outlay for grounds, such buildings would yield, at a moderate rental, a handsome income, which might be turned into the general revenues of the University or designated, wholly or in part, to such special objectschairs for professors, scholarships for students, etc.-as the donor might be particularly desirous of promoting. The educational and social advantages to students living with their comrades under a common roof on the grounds of the University have been mentioned in previous Reports, and the effects of halls of residence in developing sentiments of loyalty and affection to the University have been demonstrated by universal experience. The University of Pennsylvania, which has hitherto been without them, recently adopted a scheme for dormitories. And the friends of Cornell earnestly hope that she is not, in this respect, to lag much longer in the rear. In the absence of halls of residence owned by the University, Greek letter fraternities have had a flourishing development at Cornell ; but while in general they deserve encouragement, it must not be forgotten that they bring the University no income (though several of them are on the Campus), and that, in the competition for superior buildings and furniture, which a watchful eye may now begin to discern, they are liable to intro. duce into the University an element foreign to its comprehensive and democratic spirit and dangerous to its simple, earnest, and healthful life. Whatever tends to the establishment of distinctions—to the separation, locally or socially-of the rich and the poor should be checked in its incipiency. There is no more healthful and promising corrective to those undesirable effects which the fraternities, in spite of all their best efforts and along with all their great advantages, may produce than a system of halls of residence. To be sure there is one danger to be guarded against, or the very halls would themselves become an evil. At Cornell University there should never be a “rich man's'' dormitory or a “poor man's” dormitory. All halls of residence should be plain, substantial, and convenient buildings ; and the students' rooms should not be further removed from the stringency of poverty than from the luxury of wealth. It is unnatural to disturb the free and generous intercourse of youth by reminders of artificial distinction ; and it is little less than criminal for a university

to encourage or permit the classification of students according to their money. In this matter Europe, with all its monarchies and aristocracies, furnishes an instructive object lesson to America. The uniform quadrangle of most of the Oxford and Cambridge colleges, wherein rich and poor dwell together-not the contrast of palatial and mean dormitories to be found nearer home-will serve moral, and it may be as an architectural, exemplar for the future halls of residence for Cornell.”

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SAGE COLLEGE AND THE HOUSES

The social life of the women students is much better cared for. They have a home in Sage College and Cottage, which are provided, not only with a dining room, but with common rooms as well ; and large expenditures have already been incurred by the University-and much larger authorized for next summer-in making these buildings not only safe and convenient, but comfortable, agreeable, . and beautiful. Nevertheless Sage College and Cottage accommodate only about 200 women. And, apart from those who live at home, with relatives or in private families, there will probably remain about 50 or 100 women students who must next year live in lodging houses. For these Miss Putnam, the Warden, and other friends have secured lodging houses near the campus, one of which is to be conducted on the co-operative plan (each of the young women devoting about an hour a day to the lighter work of the establishment, such as washing dishes, sweeping, preparing vegetables, etc.). These houses are to be occupied exclusively by women. Furthermore, in accordance with a recent enactment of the Trustees, the Warden of Sage College is hereafter to have jurisdiction not only over the women in Sage but over all women students in the Univer. sity. In this supervision she naturally counts on the co

operation of the women students themselves, more particularly by means of the extension of the self-government association which Iras greatly facilitated the administration of the affairs of Sage College and Cottage. The Warden of Sage has a difficult office to fill; and, now that its functions have been enlarged, Miss Loomis will need the hearty support of students, alumnae, and indeed of the entire University community. Her ideal of being a "counselor and friend” to the young women is the way to success, and, the larger the number who can feel that personal influence, the more marked her success will be.

LIBERAL EDUCATION

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It is a trite saying that we live in an age of specialization. Our colleges and universities have not escaped this influence, but the notion of liberal education, though its meaning has been rendered somewhat uncertain and indefinite, still survives. The organ of liberal education is the college of arts and sciences, and more particularly the arts division of that college, the division which embraces language, literature, philosophy, history, economics, and politics. Without excluding pure science it is generally held that these humanistic subjects constitute the materials of a liberal education. They are, therefore, of primary and fundamental importance in every university. At Cornell they received last year a quickening impetus from two different sources. In the first place the housing of all these departments in the Goldwin Smith Hall has had the effect of bringing teachers and students as well as teachers and teachers into closer and more frequent personal relations. And, as all education is essentially personal, the result is of cardinal importance in an age when mechanism, even in the highest regions of life, tends to invade the precincts of manhood. The second circumstance which has reacted favorably upon

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