students. The course in arts is believed to be easier than the course in engineering or medicine or law. This disparagement is probably well founded. Arts students have not a definite goal before them like students in the professional and techvical courses and lazy students take advantage of the elective system, which is peculiar to the course in arts. The evil may not be a serious one ; and the character of the student population of Cornell and the all-peryading spirit of hard work are sufficient to correct defects in any College, once the Faculty is aware of their existence and determined on their elimination. Perhaps the professors and instructors can improve their methods of teaching, making the work more interesting, stimulating, and vital. Perhaps they can get into closer personal touch with their students. It is indispensable that somehow, in the class-room or out of it, they give the students individual attention and training. Nor should undergraduates be given opportunities to shirk their regular work. It is little less than pathetic to read in the Harvard report already referred to (and the implied criticism is not more deserved by the Harvard faculty than by others) that "students themselves express the opinion that the instructor or assistants should by means of frequent 'quizzes' or conferences keep them to their work, and enable them to read with greater understanding."

It is very gratifying to add that in this year's annual reports from the arts professors in Cornell there is evidence both of an increasing use of "quizzes and conferences and of closer personal contact between professors and students outside the class-room. Here are short extracts from four different reports :

(1) “The experiment of having frequent quizzes, which was introduced for the first time this year, has had most gratifying results. The students do much better work than formerly and seem to find more interest in the work they do."

(2) “For these quizzes the class has met once a week in two sections of about twenty four members each. This adjustment, I believe, is a marked improvement over the purely lecture method fol. lowed in the past."

(3) “I gave last term, on the average, nine hours a week to consultation with the students in this course.”

(4) “During the first half-year I met each member of the class three times in personal conference, criticising and discussing with him reports which he had previously handed in."

This is the sort of service to students which will impart new energy and vitality to a college of arts. And it cannot be too often repeated that at Cornell as elsewhere the hope of the college is in the faculty. Changes in the administrative machinery, though they should be made when improvements, will yet prove ineffectual to vitalize and energize a college of liberal arts. That is an end which the faculty, and the faculty alone, can accomplish. And, if it is asked what the faculty can do, the President replies that the ideal is described in that passage of Agassiz's address on Humboldt which recalls his own student days in the University of Munich :

“I was then a student in Munich. That University had opened under the most brilliant auspices. Almost every name on the list of professors was also prominent in some department of science or literature. They were not men who taught from text-books or even read lectures made from extracts of original works. They were themselves original investigators, daily contributing to the sum of human knowledge. And they were not only our teachers but our friends. The best spirit prevailed among the professors and students. We were often the companions of their walks, often present at their discussions, and when we met for conversation or to give lectures among ourselves, as we constantly did, our professors were often among our listeners, cheering and stimulating us in all our efforts after independent research.”

In the report of the committee on improving instruction in Harvard College, to which reference has already been made, it is stated that at Harvard "students regard English and other modern languages, philosophy, history, geology, and some other studies, as culture subjects in a higher sense than mathematics, the classics, and most of the sciences." A somewhat similar line of cleavage is drawn by students at Cornell. Latin and Greek are more and more left to those who study them for professional purposes, so that the professors find themselves with smaller classes than formerly, but the amount and quality of the work done “atone in great measure for the small numbers. Mathematics fares somewhat better, as was to have been expected from its indispensableness to courses in the physical sciences, which are possibly a little more popular with arts students at Cornell than they seem to be at Harvard, though at Cornell also the great majority pass them over for the humanities. Hereafter, however, no undergraduate in arts can register as a junior who has not had at least one course in physics, chemistry, geology, or biology in his freshman or sophomore year. There should now be courses in all these subjects especially adapted to the needs of arts students, and in carrying out this programme a new professorship of biology is a necessity. The spirit of the change is illustrated by a few sentences from the Life of Louis Agassiz :

As a teacher he always discriminated between the special student, and the one to whom he cared to impart only such a kuowledge of the facts of nature as would make the world at least partially intelligible to him.

What I would wish for you,' he would say, 'is culture that is alive, active, susceptible of farther development. Do not think that I care to teach you this or the other special science. My instruction is only intended to show you the thoughts in nature which science reveals, and the facts I give you are useful only, or chiefly, for this object.'

But, when all is done for science that should be done, it will still remain true that English and other modern languages and literatures, history and political science, psychology and philosophy, constitute the principal materials of education for students enrolled in the college. That fact alone emphasizes the importance of finding a strong man to take the headship of the English department from which Professor Hart, after rendering most scholarly and fruitful service for many years, has now withdrawn. “Whoever he may be,” says Professor Hart, “I hope he will be at once a man and a scholar, broadminded enough to appreciate the individuality of each member of the staff and quick to encourage genuine research in all directions.”

The attendance in the College of Arts and Sciences in 1906–1907 showed an increase of 43 over the preceding year. The total number of students enrolled was 748. The Report for 1903-1904 contained a table giving the comparative figures of academic students at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Cornell from 1883-1884 to 1903-1904. The figures for the subsequent years are as follows :

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The Secretary of the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences, who furnished the figures for Harvard, writes that "the total number in 1906-1907 cannot be compared with the corresponding totals in the two former years, because it includes about three hundred students who would probably have been registered in the Lawrence Scientific School if the administration of the degree of S. B. had not been changed." That total, however, was 2,247. If 300 be subtracted from it, there would remain 1,947 academic students at Harvard in 1906–1907. The figures for Princeton and Yale need no explanation. It will be seen that in 1906-1907 Princeton had 35 more academic students than in 1904-1905 and Yale 47, while Harvard shows a decline of 62. At Cornell the increase for the same period was 64.

The occupation of Goldwin Smith Hall has, as Dean Willcox reports, "greatly increased the amount and changed the character of the intercourse between the Dean and the students in the College." The duties of the Dean have increased fourfold and much more than half his working hours have been given to those duties. The students of the College now for the first time feel that "there is a common centre where their interests are considered, their work followed, and their inquiries answered.” This is an incalculable advantage to the students. But of course it makes heavy demands on the time of a Dean, demands which cannot be met without sacrificing independent investigation and productive scholarship, if not also teaching efficiency. Even before the College moved into Goldwin Smith Hall, as early as the spring of 1906, Dean Willcox expressed to the President his desire to resign the office in order that he might continue the statistical investigations in which he had already accomplished such admirable work. At the earnest request of the President, however, he consented to retain the office. But in the course of the present year he definitively tendered his resignation, having become convinced, as he states in his report, that "I could be of greater service to the University as teacher than as Dean and that I could not properly perform both duties." The administrative staff has lost a careful, judicial, wise, and patient officer. The vacant deanship was filled by the appointment of Professor A. Ross Hill. Meanwhile Professor Willcox resumes his old work as a teacher and investigator, and it is the universal wish that the University may long continue to enjoy the benefit of his ability, scholarship, and devotion to the intellectual life.

In the month of May the Cornell chapter of Phi Beta

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