assimilating. Nor does it admit of doubt that the professional school, which is an organic part of a university, is a better and more effective school than the isolated, unendowed, and often commercialized institution which it is generally displacing. It would seem to follow, therefore, that in the public interest there should always be universities whose professional schools are open to the graduates of high schools. Naturally the number of these will diminish in proportion as the public comes to make higher scholastic demands of their lawyers and physicians. But to this process of reform, even if the public sentiment should be more potently aroused and insistent than it is at all reasonable to expect, economic forces will set limits. For the fees which the public of the smaller cities, the villages, and the rural districts will be able to pay their lawyers and physicians will always be small, so that young men who look forward to this field of practice, if they have not means (as few of them have), would not feel justified either in borrowing or taking time to earn the money necessary to obtain a liberal education in arts or science prior to entering upon their professional courses. And these men constitute the great majority of the professions. Add to them the rank and file of the lawyers and physicians of the great cities, whom the same economic considerations will deter from securing a superior preliminary education, and it at once becomes obvious that, if all the universities of the country should demand a degree in arts or science for admission to their schools of law or medicine, as two or three have already done, they would divorce themselves almost completely from the professions which it is their desire and their duty to serve. On the other hand there should be special schools for the men who are to go to the top in both professions whether as practitioners or as scientists and scholars. And since there is no way of testing native endowments, educational attainments seem to furnish the only criterion for the differentiation contemplated.

At present there are three schools of law and two schools of medicine in the United States which are open only to college graduates. The number might perhaps be somewhat increased without prejudice to the public, especially in the case of professional schools located in large cities where college graduates abound and where the professions offer their greatest rewards. Hitherto all other professional schools have been open to students whose preliminary education did not exceed, and was often less than, that furnished by a full high school course.

A change, however, has now taken place. In law two years of college work or its equivalent is now required, or, according to announcement made, will soon be required at the Universities of North Carolina, Ohio, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Yale, and at. Trinity College, North Carolina. At the meeting in August, 1907 of the Association of American Law Schools the propriety of exacting such an entrance requirement as a condition of membership in the Association was referred to a committee for consideration, with instruction to report next year, when the question will doubtless be decided by the Association. The report of the Committee on Legal Education of the American Bar Association, presented at the meeting in Portland, August 27th, 1907, contained the following recommendation, the consideration of which for lack of time was deferred until next year :

Resolved, That, in approving a high school education as a minimum requirement in general education, the American Bar Association is not to be understood as holding the opinion that such education is fully adequate to the needs of those who are to practice law. On the contrary the Association entertains the opinion that the interests of the profession and of the State would be promoted if all candidates for admission to the Bar should be required to have an education equivalent at least to two years of a college course.

Still more radical has been the departure in medical education. In 1906 only seven medical colleges in the country required one or more years in a college of arts for admission. During the past year the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association exerted its influence toward the adoption of a higher standard. There are now fifty medical colleges which either already require one or more preliminary years in a college of liberal arts or have voted to require this preliminary preparation by January ist, 1910. Of these fifty colleges two are requiring a degree and eighteen others will require two or more years of college work, while thirty will require one year.

In view of these facts, and with constant regard to the public interest as well as to scholastic ideals and institutional prestige, it may now be asked what Cornell University should do with its Colleges of Law and Medicine.

In answering this question, each institution must be considered separately, if for no other reason than this, that the one is located in Ithaca which has a populatian of 13,000 and the other in the City of New York which has a population of more than 4,000,000 within the city limits and more than 5,500,000 within a radius of thirty miles.

In the College of Law there were last year enrolled 211 students, of whom 149 came from New York State and 62 from outside the State. Besides these, 25 students from other Colleges of the University registered for certain courses. Of the 211 law students is were college graduates and 46 others had taken one or more years of college work. This latter class has been increasing in numbers for several years. In other words law students themselves, without prescription by the Faculty, are coming more and more to recognize the value of an education in the liberal arts and sciences prior to the pursuit of professional study. This disposition has been encouraged by the Faculty, who have laid out an elective four-year course, embracing in the first year only arts and science subjects with the addition of torts and in the remaining three years the regular course in law, with the addition of arts and science subjects in the second year equivalent to torts. Iu the first year English history and elementary economics are required, the remaining courses being elective but subject to approval by the Dean. Further consideration may suggest the wisdom of adding the English language and literature to the required studies. But the plan, as it stands, has manifest advantages. The student gets a year of college work before entering upon bis three year professional course. At the same time he is under the Faculty of Law which will endeavor to hold him to the hard work expected in the professional courses. The studies too are of the sort to appeal to the interest of the professional student. He himself will recognize that a student of the common law needs to know the history of England where that law has had a development of a thousand years, and also to understand the economic principles governing the production and distribution of wealth with which so large a portion of the lawyer's practice is concerned. At the same time the student gets just a taste of professional work in the prescribed subject of torts. Altogether the programme illustrates an earlier suggestion of this Report. It shows how, at a time when the notion of liberal culture is under eclipse, a course of humanistic education may be laid out with reference to the prospective vocation of the student.

The President believes that in the near future this four year course should be required of all students entering the College of Law who have not previously had at least one year of satisfactory work in a college of arts and sciences. Beyond that requirement he does not believe that a due regard to the interests of the public, which the College of Law has served for twenty years, would suffer the restriction to extend-certainly not for any date that need be considered at the present time.

It is different with the College of Medicine in the City of New York. That institution is located in the midst of a depse population of many millions, among whom there are great numbers of college graduates. Its students have been drawn mainly from that locality. And although Boston and Baltimore each has a medical school open only to college graduates, in the vastly larger city of New York a ll the medical schools alike are open to high school graduates. Surely in this city, if anywhere else in America, the work of the medical colleges should be differentiated. There should be at least one medical college devoted to research in the medical sciences and to the training of graduates of colleges of arts and sciences who propose to devote themselves to the study of medicine, and from whom are most likely to come that small body of learned investigators or skilful practitioners who constitute the crown of the medical profession.

Shall the Cornell University Medical College endeavor to fill this now unoccupied position? This is a question to be most carefully considered by the Faculty, the Trustees, and the generous Founder and constant Patron of the College. At the time of the foundation of the College, nine years ago, the question was mooted but dismissed as premature. Since then, however, the College has established an excellent reputation alike in the work of teaching and in the field of investigation. Its graduates testify to the high character of the education which the College furnishes. And the researches conducted by the College, especially in the province of pathology, have attracted the attention and commendation of both scientists and physicians. Polk says :

« ͹˹Թõ