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“It is the idea in the future that the University should maintain a body of men devoted entirely to the advancement of medicine as a true science, and contribute its full share of the benefits mankind has

to expect from an institution of this kind. Eleven persons are actually engaged in this work solely in the department of pathology, and the value of it is attested in the serum recently introduced for the cure of a certain specific infection known as gonorrhoeal rheumatism, and another serum which has attracted world-wide attention for the cure of a disorder known as Graves' disease or exophthalmic goitre, in which the nomenclature, owing to the teaching of this laboratory, is now being changed to thyroidism."

Without answering the question raised just before this quotation as to the future of the College, the President would point out that either that change or some other in that direction is now practically unavoidable. It is not merely that the harvest is ripe in New York City and that no institution is reaping it. It is not merely that the College in nine years has won for itself high standing by the quality of its instruction and by the importance and fruitfulness of its experimental research and inquiry. There are practical considerations which reinforce these scholastic features in dominating the situation at the present time. First, the Cornell University Medical College cannot afford to remain behind the medical colleges mentioned in an earlier part of this section which, either independently or in reponse to the action of the American Medical Association, have now prescribed one or two years of work in a college of arts and sciences as a requirement for admission to the professional course. And, secondly, the congestion of the medical curriculum has created a situation intolerable both for students and teachers. To quote again from the report of the Dean :

“In conclusion permit me to add that it is our hope to have the fundamental subjects of chemistry and biology more widely introduced into our preparatory courses. For each year the growth of knowledge imposes burdens upon the present curriculum which are becoming almost physically impossible for both the student and the instructor. Before the lapse of many years it will be absolutely necessary either to lengthen the medical course or to compel our students to come to us prepared in the fundamental natural sciences. There are growing signs of the recognition of these facts by the public educators in the primary branches, but it is the duty of those interested in the teaching of medicine to constantly urge a better preparation upon those who intend to make this great humanitarian calling their life work."

Similarly the Secretary of the Ithaca Division of the Medical College, which duplicates the work of the first two years, writes in his report :

“The curriculum is greatly overcrowded and nearly every department is asking for more time for its work. It seems imperative that physics and elementary chemistry should soon be made required subjects for entrance. If we could obtain our students with better preparation than graduation from a high school implies, it would be possible to materially strengthen our medical course.”'

The educational embarrassment resulting from the crowded curriculum of the four-year course could be relieved by adding a preparatory year to the present course, as the College of Law has done in the course it recommends for its students. But, even if that were done, the Cornell University Medical College would still be outranked in that respect by Yale University, the University of Minnesota, Western Reserve University, Rush Medical College and other western medical schools which require for admission a previous course of at least two years in arts and sciences. And, if the College were ready to follow their example and also prescribe two years of liberal education for entrance, the question would then arise whether it might not be better to demand a degree in arts and sciences, as Harvard and Johns Hopkins already do, especially in view of the need of such an institution for superior instruction and research in the great city of New York.

THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS

The training of teachers for work in the secondary schools of the State is one of the imperative duties of the University. The President has always been decply impressed with this obligation of the University, and as far back as 1894-1895 he outlined a scheme for a broad-based school or college dedicated to that function, which it was hoped the State might deem it expedient to support at Cornell University. But the newly inaugurated policy of State support for the Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine was then fighting its way against great opposition and the time was thought inopportune to urge the State to establish a college of education, especially as sister institutions opposed it on the ground that it would give Cornell a monopoly of the function of training teachers for the high schools, academies, and normal schools of the State. On no account would the University imperil the successful development of the policy of securing generous State co-operation to expand and strengthen the work in agricultural and veterinary science. These interests, in the years that have since elapsed, have been safeguarded and consolidated beyond the possibility of reaction. And the University is now free to consider once more the programme of a professional School of Education, which shall supersede the existing department of pedagogy. Happily at this juncture also funds became available for the training of teachers, so that the University is relieved of the necessity of soliciting the financial co-operation of the State in this great enterprise.

At the meeting of the Board of Trustees in June, the following preamble and resolutions were adopted :

" Whereas, It is desirable that Cornell University should train teachers for the schools of New York and other states not only in the Liberal Arts and Sciences but also in Agriculture and the Industrial and Fine Arts; and

Whereas, Courses adapted to the needs of teachers in these subjects are now provided in the different Colleges of the University and others will hereafter be added ; and

Whereas, It is expedient, if these courses are to be effectively utilized, that they be assembled in one group and be arranged by one responsible head ; therefore,

Resolved, That there be established in the University a School of Education, which shall embrace all such courses, and that Dr. A. Ross Hill, Professor of the Philosophy of Education, be appointed Director thereof.

"Further, Resolved, That Director Hill be requested to prepare and issue at his earliest convenience a circular of information of the aforesaid School of Education.

The new School is created by this resolution of the Board, but its organization must await the further action of the Faculties, and especially of the University Faculty. Questions of courses, of degrees, of government and administration must be carefully considered. On those matters the President ventures to make a few observations and suggestions.

As to organization there is in this University the analogy of the School of History and Political Science and the "School of Philosophy within the College of Arts and Sciences, as at the University of Oxford there are “Schools” of classics, of history, of law, of English literature, etc. But, as the new School of Education is to embrace subjects given in different Colleges of the University, a closer parallel is perhaps presented by the Summer Session, which is generally designated the Summer "School.” In none of these Schools is there a Faculty with independent powers nor does the work done in any of them count towards a degree unless it satisfies the conditions established by the Faculty which has jurisdiction over the subject concerned, which is generally the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. These Schools are mere integrations of differentiated departments or combinations of related departments engaged in a common work.

The Colleges of Law and Medicine offer only remote parallels. Students in those Colleges devote themselves exclusively to the study of professional subjects. But the student who is preparing himself for teaching should devote three fourths or more of his time to the pursuit of a liberal education, with special attention of course to the subjects which he later expects to teach. Consequently these students should remain under the Faculty in charge of those subjects; they should not be segregated in a separate organization, at least until the long period of general education is complete and the short period of professional training begins.

It is now held by experts that the minimum scholastic requirement for a secondary school teacher should be graduation from a college maintaining a four year course during which, while gaining some insight into the different fields of knowledge, he has also made a detailed and specialized study of the subjects to be taught and also obtained a general acquaintance with one or more of the social sciences and one or more of the mental sciences (with a view to appreciating both the social and the psychological aspects of education). If the professional training were embraced in the A. B. course, it is held that not more than one eighth of the time should be devoted to it. This work would include the history and philosophy of education, special methods of teaching the different subjects, the organization and management of schools, and, if possible, observation and practice in teaching.

As students in the College of Arts and Sciences at Cornell are already permitted to devote even the whole of the senior year to professional study, it will be possible for them to take all the professional work in pedagogy which should be given in the A. B. course without registering under another Faculty. This will prevent a division of allegiance and, what is even more important, an alienation from academic

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