and scholarly interests. Nor, unless a fifth year is to be prescribed, would any new degree be called for.

But a fifth year is undoubtedly demanded in an ideal plan. The undergraduate in arts would take no pedagogy during the first two years, in the junior year he might take one course which has a value for general culture, like the history of education, and perhaps two courses in the senior year on the theory of education. This would leave for the fifth year the more strictly professional and practical work, though the candidate should also be required at the same time to take at least one graduate course in the subject which he expects to teach. The degree of A. M. might be conferred on the satisfactory completion of this year's work ; but it should be conferred only on the recommendation, both of the professor of the subject to be taught and the head of the School of Education. The diploma would, in effect, certify that the graduate was a master and docent in the subject he professed.

A similar arrangement could in all probability be made in the case of students in technical courses who might desire to qualify themselves to become teachers of manual training, drawing or the fine arts. These too during the four year course would remain enrolled in their respective Colleges, only in the third and fourth years they should be permitted to elect in the aggregate two or three courses in the history and philosophy of education.

It would seem, therefore, that the establishment of a School of Education would not make any difference in the method of registration and enrollment of prospective teachers which is now followed in the University. The vast majority of such persons, in the future as in the past, will enroll in the College of Arts and Sciences. And, whether the School of Education be a division of that College like the School of History and Political Science or separate from it like the Summer School, makes very little difference.

If, however, a fifth year of specialization in pedagogy is prescribed, and a master's degree conferred, the administration of the School would, in accordance with the existing statutes and practices of the University, devolve upon the University Faculty. And, considering that, though the College of Arts and Sciences is the one especially involved, there will also be teachers of the fine arts and the industrial arts coming from the other Colleges of the University, the University Faculty seems a more appropriate agency than the Faculty of any particular College.

Hitherto no mention has been made of the College of Agriculture, though it is a most important factor in the scheme. This is because that College presents some exceptional features which call for exceptional arrangements. So far as students regularly enrolled in the four year course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture are concerned, what has been said above applies without qualification to them. But it is a deeply cherished hope of all the friends of the College of Agriculture that it may in some way contribute to the improvement of education in the rural schools, which are of course elementary schools, in which teachers serve for a salary of a few hundred dollars a year. These teachers will not be college graduates, nor is it necessary that they should be for the successful performance of their duties. Yet, if the education in the rural schools is to be vitalized, the reform must be accomplished through the teachers. The first step is to supplement the present system of book-education with natureeducation, that is to say, with education by meaus of their rural environment, including the farmer's plants and crops, his flocks and herds, and his methods of handling them to earn a livelihood. These are objects of scientific interest not less significant than the collections of an herbarium or museum ; and for children on the farms they are vastly more important. At present country school teachers are untrained in this field of nature-study, whether pure or applied. The State College of Agriculture seems to be the pre-ordained organ of such education for New York. And it is the policy of the Trustees of Cornell University and the Faculty of the College to give careful attention to this work. Naturally special courses dealing with farm crops, farm plants, and farm animals must be prepared for the instruction of the rural school teachers who can be induced to come here for a year or two. And such teachers, on whom the revivifying of our whole system of elementary education depends, must be welcomed by the School of Education and admitted to pedagogical courses arranged with special reference to their distinctive needs. But this provision for country school teachers need not derogate from the standing of the School of Education as essentially an institution for the professional training of college graduates who desire to become secondary school teachers or superintendents. It seems probable too that the School of Education can render the best service to rural teachers, not by offering them new pedagogical courses, but by co-operating with the Faculty of the College of Agriculture in making the courses to be offered in rural science educationally valuable and effective.

However the organization and functions of the School of Education may finally be adjusted, the President has no doubt of the successful work which it is destined to accomplish under the direction of Dr. A. Ross Hill, whose return to his alma mater has given keen satisfaction to all who knew the man or followed the course of his career in other universities. His appointment as Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences cannot fail to keep the School of Education in the closest touch and harmony with the College of Arts and Sciences from which indeed that School draws the very breath of its life and without which it would infallibly degenerate into a mere simulacrum of red tape and ignorant methodology

The new and larger plan now inaugurated for the training of teachers is a natural development and expansion of the work which Cornell University has carried on for many years. And it is satisfactory to report that the existing pedagogical department was never more successful than last year, when 114 different persons registered for courses, to the number, on the average, of two apiece. The other agency for the liberal education and professional training of teachers at Cornell University is the Summer Session, which Professor Bristol administers with a skill and energy that could not fail of success and with a devotion to scholastic ideals not easily surpassed. In the summer of 1907 the School enrolled the unparalleled number of 755 earnest students, of whom 288 were undergraduates of last year and 302 were teachers. Of the teachers in attendance 22 were engaged in teaching in colleges, 18 in normal schools, in in high schools, 120 in grammar or elementary schools, and 17 in private schools, while 14 were engaged in superintendence and supervision.


No institution in the world has done more for technical education than Cornell University nor does any other enjoy a higher reputation. The great harvester, Death, has claimed the pioneers in this movement, but younger directors have taken their places, the faculties have been enlarged, class-rooms and laboratories have been multiplied, courses have been adapted to the engineering and industrial conditions of the day, and students in ever increasing numbers come to avail themselves of the opportunities and advantages of technical education which the University affords. There are still improvements to be made ; for more and better endowed professorships are still a desideratum, and, with all the recent increase in rooms, there is still need of a new building for the shops in mechanic arts and of a new laboratory in civil engineering, especially for the experimental work in concrete and reinforced concrete, which is coming to be of vital importance in modern constructions. But, despite these remaining deficiencies, the institutions of technical education at Cornell University have in the last few years been markedly strengthened and improved. They are also in better correlation with the industrial world. Indeed, in the reorganization of courses, the guiding principle has been a desire to meet the demands which that industrial world is to-day making of schools of engineering and applied science, without sacrifice of the work in pure science on which the solution of the most practical problems in construction and in manufacture will be found ultimately to depend. So that whether regard be had either to the scientific or to the practical character of the technical education given at Corneil University, it does not, within the field it now covers, seem susceptible of much improvement (always excepting the reinforcement of the teaching staff already mentioned as desirable).

The time seems to have come, therefore, to inquire in what way, if at all, further improvement is to be effected.

Engineers themselves generally answer that question by pointing to the field of independent work and research. And even in institutions organized primarily for instruction as the technical colleges of Cornell University are, it is a matter of great importance both to students and professors to have investigations constantly under way. Accordingly in Sibley College during the past two years an investiga

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