tion for the accurate determination of the specific heat of superheated steam has been carried on in which results have been obtained of great value in connection with the design of modern steam turbines. And the College of Civil Engineering, having almost completed a survey of the Fall Creek watershed, now plans by the construction of a measuring weir to obtain data regarding the run-off from the watershed, which will be of great value to the engineer. ing profession in making estimates for water power development in any locality in central New York. Such investigations might be multiplied without limit so long as teachers have time, or students are qualified, to conduct them. But teaching remains the primary function of the Faculty. Cornell University has no ambition to transform its schools of technical instruction for undergraduates into laboratories of research for graduates.

There is another way to improvement at Cornell University which the President believes should now be seriously considered. Before outlining it, he desires to cite a passage from Director Smith's report which tersely describes the existing conditions :

“The need of the modern engineer for a training much broader than that given by purely technical study is now quite generally recognized. The difficulty of giving anything in a four years' technical course besides technical work is also recognized.”

The Director hopes that at least the best students may broaden out their education by electing subjects in the liberal arts in addition to the prescribed curriculum in engineering. Occasionally this will happen, and the President is personally acquainted with a senior in engineering who last year elected a course in metaphysics in which too he did excellent work. Such men derive incalculable benefit from arts subjects, not only because they are capable, earnest, and studious, but also because they are already wellgrounded in physical science. The pity of it, however, is that the number of them is so small. Nor can more be expected so long as they are required to take, besides these arts subjects, a technical course which occupies the full time of the undergraduate.

The courses in engineering require either 17 or 18 hours a week for each of the four terms of the first two years, or 70 hours in all. In Civil Engineering 38 of the 70 hours are in Arts and Sciences and in Mechanical Engineering 34. In the junior year the Civil Engineers also take a course in political economy of three hours a week throughout the year-a course which the President has urged should be prescribed also for Mechanical Engineers (for whom next year, at any rate, the Faculty have prescribed a one hour course). If this course of six hours for the two terms be added to the foregoing figures, the Civil Engineers will have 44 hours in Arts and Sciences and the Mechanical Engineers 40.

Excellent as the courses in Arts and Sciences which are taken by freshmen and sophomores in engineering are and have been, and valuable as the education they furnish is, both the courses and the education suffer, from the point of view of general or liberal culture, from the disadvantage of being exclusively in the field of mathematics and physical science. And the modern engineer, if he is to be truly educated, needs a training broader than physical science and technical study. He too, because he is a man, needs the culture of the humanities-that liberalizing and expansion of mind which comes from the study of literature, history, and philosophy. This, however, he can no longer secure in a four years' technical course. With the constant increase of professional subjects rendered necessary by the advance of engineering science and the practice of modern engineering, the curriculum of the four year course has grown more and more technical, and less place than ever now remains for any of the liberal arts. The result is that, all over the country, men are graduating in the engineering courses with an ignorance of literature, history, and the other liberal arts so dense that no proficiency in science and technology can save them from the charge of being uncultured, especially, when, as so often happens as a necessary result of their limited reading of literature, they are unable to express themselves, either in speech or writing, in correct English prose.

Has not the time arrived when the period of study for students in engineering should be extended beyond four years so that students may be required to study the elements of a liberal education before entering upon their strictly technical work? The President believes that along this line the vext step is to be taken for improving the education of engineers at Cornell University.

Two methods are open, though perhaps only one is feasible at the present time. Either one year or two years of study might be prescribed in addition to the present curriculum of four years, and the time thus gained devoted by the student mainly, if not indeed exclusively, to the humanities. Of technical study he already gets enough in the last two years of the course and of pure science he has enough in the first two years. It has already been shown that of the 70 hours prescribed in the engineering courses for the first two years from 40 to 44 hours are taken in the College of Arts and Sciences, of which all but six in economics are in physical science.

cal science. What the engineering student needs, therefore, to broaden his horizon and to humanize his culture is the study of literature, history, and other humanities. And he would derive unusual advant. age from those studies since, while taking them, he would also be studying the mathematics, physics, and chemistry prescribed in his curriculum. If six years of study were required of him, the student in engineering could complete in the first three years the 40 to 44 hours of science now prescribed and in addition about 50 hours in such humanistic studies as literature, history, political science, etc., while in the last three years he would devote his mind, enlarged and vitalized by the study of the liberal arts and of physical science, to the mastery of the technical subjects in which he could not fail to show a facility and superiority of work which it would be unreasonable to expect and difficult to discover among the students so much less liberally trained, who now pursue the four year courses in engineering. Such a six year course would admit the student to both the A. B. and the C. E. or M. E. degree without any change in the existing rules. And a programme is published by the Faculty of Civil Engineering, as one might be by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, for the guidance of candidates who might be disposed to take the prolonged course. Such students at matriculation would be obliged to satisfy the requirements for admission to the College of Arts and Sciences.

It has hitherto been possible for students to take the arts degree and the engineering degree in six years. A few have availed themselves of the privilege, but the number has always been small. For this and other reasons the President believes it would be going too far at the present time to require all candidates for a degree in engineering to spend six years in study and secure the A. B. degree as well as the professional degree. But the President also holds that it is very desirable that young men should have some college training in language, literature, history, etc., before entering upon their professional studies. And he is disposed to think that the time has arrived when Cornell University might safely insist on a fifth year of study in the engineering courses, the additional time to be spent wholly on humavistic studies during the first two years of the five year course while the student was also pursuing his work in pure science—mathematics, physics, chemistry, etc. This plan would, of course, not be so near the ideal as a six year course, but it would be a great improvement on the present arrangement, and that not only because it afforded to prospective engineers the means of securing at least some culture from the humanities but also because it would infallibly awaken interests and stimulate tastes which would induce them to pursue these studies further in the years that followed. Indeed many of them, noting that two degrees could be obtained by an additional year, might go on to the six year course in arts and engineering, even though at entrance they had not contemplated more than the five year course which the President believes should be prescribed in the near future. With this presentation of the case he recommends the matter to the earnest consideration of the Faculties and Trustees. He himself is persuaded that no improvement which could now be effected in the character of the instruction offered by the technical colleges at Cornell University could compare with the gain which would accrue to those colleges by having the minds of their students nurtured, strengthened, and liberalized as they might be if the students devoted even half their time during the first two years of the course to the English language and literature, history, political science, and other subjects of humanistic culture.

What has been said of the engineering courses applies with still more force to the work in architecture, sivce architecture is pre-eminently one of the fine arts, which are naturally associated with liberal culture. The leading architects and teachers have come to recognize not only that the technical training given in the professional schools

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