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should be improved, as it might be by strengthening the faculties and by attaching to them practical architects of recognized standing to supervise and criticize the work in design, but also that some liberal education in the humanities should be required of students before they are admitted to the technical course. Here is the way in which the Professor in charge of the College of Architecture presents the matter in his report :

"If Cornell is to hold her place of distinction in the field of architectural education, we must move in no uncertain way to meet the well-founded demands of the men who are directing the thought and doing the work of the profession. Within the past two decades architectural education has undergone very great changes in this country, and at no time have the changes and advance been more marked than within the past few years. The schools of twenty years ago had not attracted the interest and support of the profession and were handicapped accordingly. To-day one of the most potent factors in urging them to higher standards is the direct interest manifested in their work by prominent architects personally, and by leading professional organizations through public discussion and official committees."

“There is an emphatic demand for broader cultural training on the one hand ; on the other hand the demand is equally emphatic that the technical training not only be kept fully up to present standards but that it be strengthened along certain lines. In other words, the profession is demanding that the schools furnish more training. In order to do this they must either advance their requirements for admission or lengthen their course beyond the traditional four year period.”

Professor Martin himself apparently sees no alternative between the graduate school of architecture and the traditional four year course based on high school graduation. But the via media recommended above offers a method of effecting the desiderated improvements on the latter without adopting the risks of the former-risks which outside a great city could scarcely fail to be overwhelming.

THE UNIVERSITY AND THE FARMER The census for 1900 showed that there were in round numbers 227,000 farms in the State of New York. The value of the farm property of the State was $1,069,723,895, and the value of the annual farm products was $245, 270,600, in both of which New York is surpassed by Illinois, Iowa, and Ohio. The value of the flocks and herds of New York State is $139,514,947 : $60,007,605 for horses, $387,253 for mules, $54,607,281 for milch cows, $14,855,158 for other cattle, $4,009,525 for sheep, and $5,648,125 for swine. The State has also 67,457 dairy farms or about one sixth of all in the entire Union. The milk produced in 1899 (the last year for which figures are available) was 772,799,352 gallons. Of this amount 445,427,888 gallons were sold and $36,248,833 received therefor. New York ranks first among the states in the annual production of milk and butter and second in the production of cheese, the total value of all dairy produce in 1899 being $55,474, 155. New York also ranks first in the number of dairy cows (1,501,608), and in the annual production of hay ayd forage ($55,237,446), vegetables ($25,756,000), forest products ($7,671,000), flowers and plants ($2,878,000), small fruits ($2,538,000), beans ($2,472,000), nursery products ($1,703,000), and hops ($1,600,000).

But there is another side to the picture. Up to 1870 New York held first place among the states in the value of its farm property. But in 1880 it was surpased by Ohio, in 1890 by both Ohio and Illinois, and in 1900 by Ohio, Illinois, and Iowa. In population too there has been a decline in the rural counties owing partly to a lower birth rate but mainly to migration of the population to the cities and other regions. Still there were 1,200 more farm families in the State in 1900 than in 1890. But the families who owned their farms had decreased by 3,479 and the families hiring farms had increased by 3,238 ; so that the percentage of farms worked by owners had decreased in the decade from 79.8 to 74.4 and the percentage worked by tenants had increased from 20.2 to 23.9. Furthermore onethird of the 227,000 farms in the State were in 1900 reported as encumbered. Finally, there was between 1880 and 1900 an annual decrease in the value of farm property of $7,330,000.

In the interpretation of the figures which have been given certain fundamental facts must be kept in mind. First of all, agriculture in New York and generally in the East is in the process of adaptation to new conditions, in the course of which some farms have been abandoned and others enlarged, as in the keen competition some farmers have increased in prosperity and others have retrograded. Secondly, the land in New York is still productive, as is clear from the fact that, while in farm acreage it ranks seventeenth among the states (only 69% of the total acreage of New York being improved land), in the value of farm property it ranks fourth, or, again, that, though in the total value of its farm crops it is surpassed by Illinois, Iowa, Texas, and Ohio, in the value per acre of farm products it surpasses them, the figures being for New York $15.73 per acre, for Ohio $13.36, Illinois $12.48, Texas $12.25, Iowa $12.22. Thirdly, the great and unparalleled markets of the State of New York are better than ever they were. Fourthly, experience is already showing that an intelligent study of the demands of the market and an intelligent diversification of agricultural enterprise-with due regard to the condition of the soil and the competition of the western prairies as well as the needs of the local market-offer a road to prosperity to the farmers of New York.

After all allowance is made for adverse factors, the objective conditions are still favorable for successful farming in New York. And with industry and energy, which are the gifts of nature or the products of family training, and with intelligence, which it is the function of education to stimulate and augment, the farmers of New York State may face the future with assured hope and confidence of successful results. What else do men need to achieve success but opportunity, personal energy, and knowledge which is power?

It will be seen, therefore, that for the successful adjustment of the agriculture of this State to new conditions, and for its prosperous development, the outstanding need at the present time is of greater knowledge and intelligence. The farmers must have their ways illuminated by the torch of Science. Farming was an easy, rule of thumb business in for nier times. But with all the world in competition, and with the multifarious demands of modern civilization, farmiing is a more complex and difficult job and calls for greater ability and higher intelligence. Modern universities, accordingly, give agriculture a place side by side with the learned and technical professions and vocations. And why not?

In what calling can science make a man's work more fruitful? And are any other objects more worthy of study than those with which the farmer deals? If it is worth while analyzing gases, it is surely worth while analyzing soils ; if men study bacteria and insects and flowers, why should they not give equal attention to horses and cows and fruit and grains ?

The importance of superior education and scientific method for farmers is now generally recognized throughout the United States and even in an old, conservative country like England. The London Times concludes its editorial in its issue of September roth with the following paragraph :

“To one very important condition of success both ad vocates and opponents of la petite culture in England pay, we suspect, too little regard-namely, the improvement of agricultural education, for the heads as well as for the rank and file of the industry. of our country districts it is hardly yet realized that education is necessary at all. It is not undue treatment in freight charges,

In too many

or unpatriotic preference for foreign goods, that enables the small Danish butter-farmer, for instance, to undersell the Englishman on his own markets, but superior education and scientific method applied to the organization of his industry; and we may be sure of this, that it will be useless to keep a man on the land, or to bring him back to it, by the inducement of ownership or any other attraction, unless we can educate him to do the best for himself and for the land, in an age which calls for cultivated intelligence and scientific method."

This has always been the position of Cornell University. And the State has happily adopted the policy of co-operation with the University which the President outlined in his inaugural address. By virtue of that policy the University now has State Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine which are domiciled in buildings erected by the State at a cost of over $400,000, and which the State supports with regular annual appropriations now aggregating $180,000, besides additional grants this year of $75,000 for special objects. The administration of these State Colleges is a great responsibility for the University ; and Trustees and Faculty are striving to execute the trust not only faithfully, but with the utmost wisdom, devotion, and enthusiasm. That they enjoy the confidence of the highest authorities of the State is happily evidenced by the language with which Governor Hughes closed his notable and appreciative address at the dedication of the new buildings for the College of Agriculture :

“On behalf of the State of New York, it is now my privilege and my agreeable duty to commit through you (President Schurman] to Cornell University the custody and control of these buildings and property, constructed and set apart by the State for the New York State College of Agriculture, and through you to commit to Cornell University the administration of this college for the benefit of the people of the State. And in doing this I take pleasure in expressing my confidence in the administration of this trust by Cornell University and my expectation that through this foundation the agricultural interests of the State will be notably advanced.”

The service which Cornell University through these State Colleges renders to the farmers of the State is of a

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