them proves that a large part of this increase is due to a desire to anticipate work, or to enlarge the scope of study. This is most clearly marked in the case of Sibley College students and is a most encouraging fact. The first table above shows a small decrease in “Graduates of Cornell University.” It is not easy to explain this falling off. I am convinced that our graduates turn their thoughts here first when the question of summer study comes to them. It may be that the smaller number of our graduates who have entered the teaching profession in the last few years furnishes a reason for the smaller number. Then, too, with the tendency to specialize in secondary teaching, no less than in college, it may well be that our own graduates feel less necessity for additional study in their particular fields. The number of graduates from other colleges shows a gratifying increase during the last five years. In the next class, “ Non-graduates from other colleges”, I have attempted to determine the number of students coming here for the summer who are at the time college students. It has not been possible to determine this exactly, but this year such students number approximately sixty-two. It appears that this class of students is steadily increasing and that it is likely to increase. In this way college students may obtain the advantages of academic migration without the necessity of breaking the ties of personal and institutional loyalty which hold young people so strongly to the college of their choice. The advantage to the University of this class of students cannot be questioned. The increase in the number of teachers is gratifying. It proves first that the range of opportunity offered meets the demands of the time, and also that the work itself is of satisfactory quality.

Students have come this year from forty-one states and territories of the United States, and eighteen foreign countries. The teachers in attendance came from schools in twenty-nine states and two foreign countries. As in the last few years the schools of New York City furnish the largest group, seventy-three this year. New York State continues to furnish more than one third of the entire number and Pennsylvania about one-fifth. Experience seems to show that we shall draw teachers mainly from the middle and south Atlantic states. To the west of us summer sessions or summer schools are maintained in connection with the state universities, or the state normal schools, and it is natural that teachers in any state should seek a state institution. Correspondence makes it clear that many more would attend from the south were it not for the expense involved in the long railway journey. Those who come go back well pleased, and, as the salaries of teachers are increased throughout this section of the country, it seems certain that larger numbers will avail themselves of the opportunity which is now possible for comparatively few.


The New York State Department of Education established recently a course (ultimately obligatory for all high schools) in first year biology. After consultation with members of the state department, it was thought best to offer instruction specially adapted for the assistance of teachers in this work, which involves both a knowledge of the sciences called for in the course and a practical familiarity with the best methods of presenting and illustrating the subject. To organize and carry on such a course in our Summer Session, Mr. James E. Peabody, head of the department of biology at the Morris High School, New York City, was invited to come here. He is himself a scholar of notable attainments, and has had long experience in teaching the subject in all kinds of schools, from the small country academy to the largest and best equipped modern city high school. This experience enables him to deal with the exact form of the problem presented to any teacher by this new course. Furthermore, he was chairman of the committee which arranged the course of study adopted by the state department. Mr. Peabody brought to his work earnestness, enthusiasm and the best personal qualities of a good teacher. His work has been highly satisfactory, and he has begun what is sure to be a permanent feature and to have increase and growth.

We have been able this year to offer two courses in mathematics dealing particularly with problems of teaching the subject in secondary schools. Fortunately Professor Tanner, who had recently completed an extended tour of observation in schools and colleges of the country, was willing to take some of this work. He has been ably seconded by Professor Snyders, and the statements of teachers in attendance this year prove that we have moved in the right direction, and that there will be a steady call for this kind of work in the future. In mathematics, however, no less than in other 'subjects, teachers are not confining themselves to the courses primarily, or even largely, pedagogic in character. Many teachers of elementary mathematics pursue during the summer courses in the higher and more advanced subjects. We have presented for the first time this year a beginner's course in Spanish. It has been well attended, and


the conditions at the present time assure its further continuance. The large extension of the work in English inaugurated last year has been continued this year with a success so marked that a further extension next year seems necessary. Mr. Stebbins has proved a most devoted and inspiring teacher and I trust we may enjoy in the future the advantage of his presence. Dr. Cooper has succeeded admirably in the difficult task of taking up the work in English literature laid down by Professor Corson.

The mention specifically of certain portions of the work is due to particular reasons of its importance at the present time in education, or because it represents some new policy here. No disparagement of any courses is intended from the failure to mention them particularly. I wish to emphasize the fact that the several members of the teaching staff manifested great interest and devotion from first to last, while all the faculty have worked loyally and generously together.

MANUAL TRAINING The work in systematic manual training was begun last year and the enrollment of teachers was 18. This year the number of students taking the work was 49. Of these 25 were teachers or supervisors giving their entire time to the work in manual training, and employed exclusively in teaching that subject in their own schools. Twenty-four were teachers in grammar schools, who devoted part of their time to the subject of manual training to understand better the correlation of this with the general work of the school. These statements indicate both the classes of persons to whom the work of manual training appeals and whom it attracts, and also the two-fold point of view from which the subject is regarded. For the purpose of meeting the needs of the second class mentioned, a course in elementary manual training, including weaving, basket making, constructive work in paper, cardboard, clay, etc. was organized. Instruction in the same was given three afternoons in the week under the charge of Mr. Louis Bacon, supervisor of manual training in the public schools of Indianapolis. In his report on the work of the session Mr. Dean, to whose untiring energy, no less than to the constant interest and activity of Professor Kimball, the success of the work is due, points out the great demand for the training of teachers in this phase of manual training which is quite separate and distinct in its aims from the training of specialists in the more advanced forms of the work like bench work in wood and metal, forging and foundry work, pattern making, etc. Throughout the session the instructors have kept the manual training work closely allied with the work in education. This is logical and the connection should be emphasized in the future by locating the more elementary portion of the work in rooms in Goldwin-Smith Hall. Manual training as a factor in education represents something wider than bench work, and need not be located or centered in the shops of Sibley College. At the same time for all the more advanced work in the subject the equipment of Sibley College makes it possible for us to offer the finest and most extensive facilities to be had anywhere in the United States. There is every reason to believe that the growth of this work will be constant and that the number of students will steadily increase.

PUBLIC LECTURES One of the most important features of this session has been the public lectures given on Monday and Wednesday evenings. For the course on Monday evening the general topic selected was "Public Health and Preventive Medicine.” The first lecture in the course · was given by Professor S. H. Gage on "The Contribution of Biology to Improved Conditions of Life." The three following lectures were given by Professor V. A. Moore on "The Nature of Infectious Disease," "Tuberculosis," and "The Duty of the Teacher iu Prevention of Disease.” The final lecture was by Professor E. M. Chamot whose subject was “The Protection and Purification of Public Water Supplies." The attendance was excellent. The value of the course as placing before citizens of any community, and teachers in particular, the scientific nature of modern medicine, especially in its relation to epidemics and infectious diseases, can hardly be overestimated. This was recognized by many of the teachers in attendance who expressed their appreciation of the opportunity thus afforded them. Professor Moore, in addition to the three lectures, arranged an exhibition in his own laboratory on one afternoon to show the various methods in use in bacteriology, and of many preparations to illustrate conditions of life and disease in man and animals. To Professor Moore in particular for his generous services and to Professors Chamot and Gage for their kind assistance all connected with the Summer Session are deeply indebted. This year's experience confirms the wisdom of the plan adopted last year of having one course of lectures devoted to a single topic which can be elaborated and thoroughly discussed.

On Wednesday evenings lectures were given also by Professor Kimball on "The Influence of Invention on the World's Progress," Professor Bailey on "The Mission of the College of Agriculture,” Dr. George M. Gould, of Philadelphia, on "The Hygiene of the Eye,” Mr. C. W. Furlong on “The Greek Sponge Divers and the Fiuding of the Frigate Philadelphia,” and Professor Condra 'on “The Opening of the Indian Territory." All of these were valuable and interesting and were well attended. The kindness of the speakers was duly appreciated. With the exception of the address of Director Bailey, which was given in the new buildings of the College of Agriculture, all of these evening lectures were given in the main auditorium of Rockefeller Hall. The faculty members of the department of physics engaged in the Summer Session threw the building open on one evening for inspection and very kindly took pains to arrange an exhibition of various pieces of apparatus. In this way members of the Summer Session were able to inspect the fine equipment of the building. We are especially indebted to Professor J. S. Shearer who was present at every lecture and took the responsibility of personally seeing that all the preparations necessary were made.

In addition to the lectures mentioned a number of lectures in connection with the various departments and of general interest were given at such hours that the public might attend. This is a "feature of great value and one which should be encouraged and extended. Such lectures present an opportunity to students, whose minds must necessarily be given first and chiefly to their own work, to get some insight into another department of thought. Another feature of interest and of value has been the inter-department lectures by which an instructor occupies an hour with the class in a different subject from his own with a view to pointing out their mutual relations and influences. In these, as well as in other ways, has been manifested the spirit of mutual good will which has been commented on so favorably by outsiders. This spirit of confidence and co-operation is a large factor in the strength of a faculty, and to it I ascribe in large part our success.

Organ recitals have been given in the Sage Chapel on Tuesday and Thursday evenings by the university organist, Mr. Martin B. Chenhall. They have all been well attended and thoroughly appreciated. Mr. Chenhall has worked hard and has succeeded admirably. On Thursday evenings he has had the assistance of soloists.

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