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as the starting point because by that time the course was well organized and past the experimental stage and from that year developed gradually and without radical changes up to 1896—7. A complete reorganization was effected in 1897-8 and the courses shown under 1899-00 and 1908-09 indicate conditions following this reorganization. Hours are given on the two-term basis.

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The total number of hours indicated for 1884-5 is less than in the other years because courses then in the curriculum and now required for entrance are omitted.

*Geology, 3 hours, is classed with Materials rather than with Science, because of the special character of the course.

The College of Architecture at the time of the writing of this report has not adopted a five-year course, though such a course, to parallel the four-year course, has been under consideration for some time. It does not seem to me, however, that a five-year course similar to those adopted by the Engineering Colleges will be any material advance, for the simple reason that it would offer practically nothing in the way of study or incentive that has not been freely open to students entering the College of Architecture at any time during the past ten years. At no time within my knowledge of conditions has a student wishing to enter Architecture been refused admission when he could meet the Arts and Science requirements. In some cases where the deficiency in specific subjects has been small the student has entered Architecture directly, making up the deficiency by taking extra work in his regular course or in the Summer School. In other cases he has entered Arts for one year and then transferred to Architecture, or he has taken five years in Architecture and made up the deficiency by electing work in Arts and Sciences.

It seems to me that if a five-year course is to accomplish its purpose by inducing students to remain in the University for more training than the four-year course gives, it must do something more than duplicate opportunities that already exist Under present conditions the man who comes here for a five-year course with preparation in every respect equal to that of the man entering the four-year course gets no recognition whatever of his extrą year's work in the University and, from his point of view, why should he bind himself to a five-year course when he can get the same thing, his diploma, with four years in the University and one or two terms in the Summer School? This is a narrow point of view, but unfortunately, youth has not the background of experience to rise to the broader point of view that makes the training the thing and the diploma an incident. So long as degrees are conferred they are bound to be an important consideration from the viewpoint of the student and the public, and if we are to make the five-year course effective it must be recognized by a degree in addition to or differing from the degree given for the four-year course. This at once gives the student an incentive to elect the longer course and holds him to it.

In some respects the College of Architecture can never accomplish in the University what it ought until there is a distinct change of policy on the part of those who have charge of the so called general culture courses, a change that will recognize at least a fair amount of work in the fine arts and the history of the fine arts as having cultural value sufficient to warrant the removal of present restrictions on their election. These restrictions are doubtless quite warrantable in their application to purely technical subjects, but they should not be applied in such a way as to prevent the early election of such subjects as freehand drawing and the history of architecture and the fine arts in general, simply because these courses happen to be given in a professional College. Drawing, in order to be taken profitably, should be elected early in the course, and in historical subjects enough time should be allowed to permit their election in sequence.

One of the most hopeful indications of a change in sentiment is the recent announcement of the Frances Sampson Fine Arts Prize, by Professor Martin W. Sampson, head of the Department of English, to be awarded for appreciation of the fine arts along the lines I have in mind. Appreciation is the essence of the whole matter, but without knowledge-not necessarily accomplishment-there can be no appreciation.

President Eliot of Harvard in a recent address in Boston is quoted as saying:

"Art education has never been adequately introduced in our schools and colleges. If art were taught in all our school and colleges there would gradually grow up in America a large number of people whose artistic sense would be developed so that in a subsequent generation there would be an inherited taste for art and a new capacity for enjoyment. *** * Drawing is as necessary, I was going to say, for all the purposes of life as language. As a matter of fact, drawing is a better mode of expression than language."

In an address delivered a short time ago in Washington, President Butler of Columbia said:

“That man to whom art is a luxury is uncivilized. That man to whom art is a necessity is civilized."

That the fine arts will at an early day receive prominent recognition in the curricula of all colleges and universities making any pretensions to liberal culture is inevitable urider the present forward movement in America, and Cornell should lead rather than follow.

Respectfully submitted,

CLARENCE A. Martin, Director of the College of Architecture.

APPENDIX X

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE COLLEGE OF CIVIL

ENGINEERING

To the President of the University:

Sir:- I have the honor to submit the following report for the College of Civil Engineering for the year 1908-09.

The registration for the year, as shown by the class roll-calls has been as follows, classifying according to subjects taken rather than by official standing as in the Register:

Second Graduates

3

3 Seniors.

130 Juniors

135 128 Sophomores

139 Freshmen

174 Special Students

First
Term

Term

I 28

I 24

138

2

2

Total.....

583

523

This list includes 46 graduates in the undergraduate courses.

Of the new students, 7 entered the freshman, 20 the sophomore, 12 the junior, and 7 the senior class.

This shows a healthy growth from last year, the registration then being 533 for the first and 479 for the second term, or an increase of 50 and 44 respectively.

Instruction has also been given to students from other Colleges as follows:

First Second

Term Term
Sibley

354
Architecture

73

4 Arts ...

26

30 Agriculture

3 Graduates

5

873

Total...

461

918

For the purpose of making a more even distribution of the work of the College there was created at the beginning of the year a Department of Topographic and Geodetic Engineering, in which were placed all surveying courses. This change was made necessary by the unprecedented growth of the College, the number of students in attendance having increased from 252 in 1902-03, to 511 in 1907-08. Previous to this change Professor Crandall had had in his charge all the courses in Railroad Engineering, those in Geodesy and Astronomy, the Surveying courses, and Specifications and Contracts, certainly an overburden if one carefully considers the amount of work involved in each of these subjects. The change has left Professor Crandall free to devote all of his time to the Department of Railway Engineering and the subject of Specifications and Contracts. The importance of this to our students cannot be overestimated to say nothing of relieving Professor Crandall of a part of his burden. It now furnishes opportunity for every student pursuing these subjects to have the benefit of his knowledge and long experience in these fields which have made him a leading authority in questions of transportation and contracts.

Professor David Molitor was appointed to take charge of the Department of Topographic and Geodetic Engineering. He comes to the College after having spent twenty-two years in the practice of the profession of Civil Engineering, during which he has had a varied experience, devoting considerable of his time to the practice of surveying

There was also appointed to this Department, Assistant Professor S. L. Boothroyd, who has had a valuable field experience in surveying and practical astronomy and in teaching these subjects.

Assistant Professor 0. M. Leland who has been with the College for several years engaged in teaching the subjects of Geodesy, Astronomy, and Cartography naturally fell to this Department. and the gentlemen just named form a strong permanent organization for the conduct of the work of Surveying in all its branches.

To give a clear conception of the work they will have in hand it may be well to state the courses given during the present school year. The first semester the entire freshman class, numbering 174, were given their Elementary Surveying, a course of three hours per week. The entire senior class, numbering 130, had Geodesy and Astronomy, a course of five hours per week. The second semester the entire sophomore class, numbering 124, were given a three-hour course in higher Surveying. The entire senior class, numbering 128 students, were given a two-hour course in Cartography, and in addition 114 Sibley students were given a special two-hour course in Surveying for Mechanical Engineers, making a total of 670 students in this Department within the year.

The Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics under Professor Church was materially strengthened by the appointment of the following Assistant Professors to this Department: Messrs. E. W. Rettger, C. L. Walker, K. B. Turner, and S. G. George. Each of these gentlemen has had valuable experience in teaching these subjects and the Department has been materially strengthened by their addition. The result will be greater efficiency in the teaching given in Mechanics and Hydraulics, besides giving to Professor Church the assistance he has long needed.

The changes in other departments during the year were minor.

In regard to the needs of the College, I feel it my duty to emphasize my views given in my report of last year, p. lxxii, that we should put forth every effort to strengthen our course in Sanitary Engineering even though much has been accomplished within the year. It must of necessity be one of the large and important engineering fields of the future. We should also aim to strengthen our work in practical Hydraulics, Hydraulic Construction, and HydroElectric developments.

I feel further, that I cannot urge too strongly the enlargement of Lincoln Hall. During the year the building has been greatly overcrowded, handicapping in numerous instances the progress of the work of the College. We should have much more laboratory space, a larger library and reading room, a greater number of recitation

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