In response to a very rapid increase in the use of internal com bustion engines for various purposes, it has been thought wise to introduce a senes of courses treating of the design and operation of such engines and also of the methods of producing and transmitting the fuel supply for their operation.

Recently the Departments of Naval Architecture, Marine Engineering, and Railway Mechanical Engineering have been discontinued. This does not imply any criticism of the able and earnest men who have worked so effectively here as teachers in these Departments. About three and one-half years of the course in Sibley College are filled with the fundamental subjects that underlie all engineering, and this is considered as the most vitally important part of the engineer's training. There is left, therefore, at most only about a half year in which the student may devote his time to some specialty. It is believed that it is wiser to devote this time to some broad specialty like Electrical Engineering, Steam Engineering, or Internal Combustion Engineering, rather than to such narrow specialties as those represented by the discontinued departments. It is probable that graduate work in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering could be carried on successfully in a technical school located in a town with a large ship-building company, if the company were willing to cooperate. Also in a large railroad center, through cooperation, a graduate course in a technical school might be made successful. But Ithaca lacks these advantages of location. Moreover, there is a feeling in Sibley College that graduate work in engineering can be most effectively done in practice where engineering is carried on for a profit.

The improvements in courses and methods for which the Faculty has been striving, have been in operation during the past year; the higher entrance requirements have been enforced, a higher standard of scholarship has been attained, and a more logical arrangement of the work has been made. It is believed that in the immediate future only minor changes will be needed, though there is a steadfast purpose in the Faculty of Sibley College to keep alive to the needs of the student who is to enter the rapidly advancing practice of modern engineering

I wish to call to your attention one very serious, pressing need in Sibley College. Every resource has been exhausted in the effort to render the building accommodations adequate for the increasing classes in shops and laboratories. Basement rooms, heretofore considered only fit for storage, have been utilized. The Electrical Laboratory, instead of being, as it should be, in adjacent rooms of one building, is located in four widely separated places. The Mechanical Laboratory long ago outgrew the building assigned to it and its work is carried on under great and increasing difficulties. The Machine Shop, by reason of careful rearrangement, will serve for the junior classes of the next two years but not for succeeding classes at the present rate of increase. The Foundry needs a fifty per cent. increase in floor space.

Because of these conditions it will be necessary soon to provide increased building accommodations or to limit the number of students in Sibley College.

Respectfully submitted,

ALBERT W. SMITH, Director of the Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanic Arts.



To the President of the University:

Sir :- I beg to submit my fourth annual report as Director of the Summer Session for the year 1909.

In presenting this report I find it unnecessary to make extended comment on the work of this year. No radical changes have been made in the program, which has kept substantially to the same lines which have proved successful in the past. The special mention of certain departments of instruction should not be construed as implying that the others are in any way less successful.


The present year the Faculty numbered 79, of whom 42 are considered of professorial grade. Of this number 62 are regular members of Faculties of Cornell University, and 17 come from other institutions. Of these specially appointed for the Summer Session Messrs. Bacon, Clendenin, Condra, Furlong, Hawkins, Mann, Stebbins, and Woodburn have been members of the Faculty in previous years. They brought to their work this summer the experience thus gained, and an undiminished interest and energy. New appointments for 1909 were Dr. J. C. Bell, of the Brooklyn Training School for Teachers, for Education; Mr. Harold H. Brown, of the Stuyvesant High School, New York City, for Drawing; Mr. Philip R. Dean, of the Curtis High School, New York City, for Mathematics; Dr. Clarence O. Harris, of Illinois College, for Latin; Dr. F. W. C. Lieder, of Harvard University, for German; Mr. Addison B. Poland, Superintendent of Schools, Newark, New Jersey, for Education; Dr. Maurice H. Robinson, of the University of Illinois, for Economics; Dr. Albert Schinz, of Bryn Mawr College, for French; Mr. Harry E. Wood, Supervisor of Manual Training, Indianapolis, for Industrial Education. In earnest and devoted service to the work of the session no distinction can be made between the regular members of the University staff and the others. All have done everything, and even more, that could be asked of them. The splendid spirit of interested attention to the needs of individuals as well as classes, the readiness to sacrifice personal interests, and to give in generous measure time to the problems of the student and teacher have been no less than in other years. This spirit is the subject of frequent comment of the most appreciative kind on the part of the students, and to it our success is largely due.

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*Includes 145 Porto Rican teachers admitted under special arrangement with the U. S. Department of Education.


Of the teachers in attendance there were engaged in teaching in:

1905 1906 1907

1908 1909 Colleges

27 27

32 40 Normal Schools


15 High Schools .

61 96

147 129 Grammar or Elementary Schools

93 95


131 Private Schools

5 26


8 Superintendence and Supervision

3 6

14 13

I 2


I 2

I 20





The geographical distribution of students is about as last year. Forty-three states and sixteen foreign countries are represented. Among the teachers there is an increase in the attendance from the South Atlantic States, and from Pennsylvania and Maryland. This is gratifying, and encouraging in view of the fact that universities lying nearer to the homes of many of these people are now quite generally carrying on summer work. The attendance of members of college faculties is steadily growing. The number of high school teachers shows a slight falling off this year, although it is still larger than in any other year except 1908. This is rather surprising, but may be merely accidental. No definite conclusion to its causes could be drawn without a longer period of observation. On the other hand the falling off in the number of grammar school teachers noted last year has been more than made good. As against the figures for this class prior to 1908 this year shows a normal increase. The number of our own graduates attending is still small. Regarding this and other matters directly connected with it, I beg to refer to the report of last year, page 1xxx, and to say that I still hold the convictions there expressed. The problem of increasing the number of Cornell graduates directly engaged in public education seems to me one of the most important now before the University.

The instruction given in the Summer Session may be in a general way divided into three different kinds: elementary, intermediate, and advanced. It is not possible to classify students in a similar way on the basis of the nature of the work they may be taking. For example, a considerable number of mature persons, with perhaps several years of successful teaching experience, come every summer to take one of the elementary courses in language. On the other hand we have younger students still in college who may be pushing forward to advanced work in some one special line.

The numbers in the elementary courses are increasing steadily, and also the numbers in many of the courses particularly suited to teachers of the subjects in question. The more advanced courses are in the summer, as in the regular winter session of the University, taken by a smaller number of students. With these courses the

on of credit toward an advanced degree is clos connected. This question has been taken up by the newly organized Faculty of the Graduate School and bids fair during the coming year to receive a definite and, I hope, satisfactory settlement.

In arranging the work of the session in which a large part of the attendance is, and will probably continue to be, made up of teachers who come directly from actual work, this question must be met: How far should methods of instruction receive special prominence as against attention to subject matter and content? I believe that we are giving sufficient consideration to methods, and that it would not be wise to multiply courses in pedagogics. The best service we can render here to teachers is, in my judgment, to assist them in broadening and deepening their knowledge of the subjects they teach. Of necessity the pedagogic problems involved in the teaching of any subject or subjects will claim and receive adequate attention in the classes, but the weight of emphasis should be placed on the mastery of the subject matter.

I note now some changes and enlargements in connection with the different portions of the work of the summer. The work in Education was rounded out and greatly strengthened by the course in School Organization and Administration by Superintendent Poland. He had a large class, and devoted much time to their individ. ual needs as well as to the general aspects of the subject. In English the number of students has increased, and gives evidence of the excellent character of the work and of the active interest taken in it by the Department under the efficient lead of Professor Sampson. To the elementary courses in modern languages were added this year two courses in the Latin of the High School. There has been some inquiry from time to time about such work, and it seemed wise to try the experiment of offering it in the summer. Fourteen students took this work, which was skillfully and satisfactorily carried on by Professor C. 0. Harris of Illinois College. In Mathematics one course each in Algebra and Geometry was offered this year with the special aim of assisting teachers of these subjects. A fair number of students applied for and took these courses which were given by Mr. P. R. Dean of the Curtis High

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