Of the teachers in attendance there were engaged in teaching in:

1905 1906 1907

1908 1909 Colleges

27 27

32 40 Normal Schools


15 High Schools .

61 96

147 129 Grammar or Elementary Schools

93 95


131 Private Schools

5 26


8 Superintendence and Supervision

3 6

14 13

I 2


I 2

I 20





The geographical distribution of students is about as last year. Forty-three states and sixteen foreign countries are represented. Among the teachers there is an increase in the attendance from the South Atlantic States, and from Pennsylvania and Maryland. This is gratifying, and encouraging in view of the fact that universities lying nearer to the homes of many of these people are now quite generally carrying on summer work. The attendance of members of college faculties is steadily growing. The number of high school teachers shows a slight falling off this year, although it is still larger than in any other year except 1908. This is rather surprising, but may be merely accidental. No definite conclusion to its causes could be drawn without a longer period of observation. On the other hand the falling off in the number of grammar school teachers noted last year has been more than made good. As against the figures for this class prior to 1908 this year shows a normal increase. The number of our own graduates attending is still small. Regarding this and other matters directly connected with it, I beg to refer to the report of last year, page 1xxx, and to say that I still hold the convictions there expressed. The problem of increasing the number of Cornell graduates directly engaged in public education seems to me one of the most important now before the University.

The instruction given in the Summer Session may be in a general way divided into three different kinds: elementary, intermediate, and advanced. It is not possible to classify students in a similar way on the basis of the nature of the work they may be taking. For example, a considerable number of mature persons, with perhaps several years of successful teaching experience, come every summer to take one of the elementary courses in language. On the other hand we have younger students still in college who may be pushing forward to advanced work in some one special line.


The numbers in the elementary courses are increasing steadily, and also the numbers in many of the courses particularly suited to teachers of the subjects in question. The more advanced courses are in the summer, as in the regular winter session of the University, taken by a smaller number of students. With these courses the question of credit toward an advanced degree is closely connected. This question has been taken up by the newly organized Faculty of the Graduate School and bids fair during the coming year to receive a definite and, I hope, satisfactory settlement.

In arranging the work of the session in which a large part of the attendance is, and will probably continue to be, made up of teachers who come directly from actual work, this question must be met: How far should methods of instruction receive special prominence as against attention to subject matter and content? I believe that we are giving sufficient consideration to methods, and that it would not be wise to multiply courses in pedagogics. The best service we can render here to teachers is, in my judgment, to assist them in broadening and deepening their knowledge of the subjects they teach. Of necessity the pedagogic problems involved in the teaching of any subject or subjects will claim and receive adequate attention in the classes, but the weight of emphasis should be placed on the mastery of the subject matter.

I note now some changes and enlargements in connection with the different portions of the work of the summer. The work in Education was rounded out and greatly strengthened by the course in School Organization and Administration by Superintendent Poland. He had a large class, and devoted much time to their individual needs as well as to the general aspects of the subject. In English the number of students has increased, and gives evidence of the excellent character of the work and of the active interest taken in it by the Department under the efficient lead of Professor Samp

To the elementary courses in modern languages were added this year two courses in the Latin of the High School. There has been some inquiry from time to time about such work, and it seemed wise to try the experiment of offering it in the summer. Fourteen students took this work, which was skillfully and satisfactorily carried on by Professor C. 0. Harris of Illinois College. In Mathematics one course each in Algebra and Geometry was offered this year with the special aim of assisting teachers of these subjects. A fair number of students applied for and took these courses which were given by Mr. P. R. Dean of the Curtis High School, New York City, who brought into the work great enthusiasm and practical experience. It seems likely that there will be a steady demand for similar instruction. The increase in the courses in Chemistry from 5 to u in 1908 has been followed by a further increase this year to 17. The number attending (150) warrants a further extension next year, with which we shall have a satisfactory representation of the most important fields in this science. In Geography. a course this year was added in Industrial Geography. This met with an immediate response, and over 40 students attended the class, which must certainly be continued. In the general Department of Industrial Education we were able to offer this year a more comprehensive and fuller arrangement of work than ever before. The numbers attending have increased, and the quality of the students shows a steady improvement. In connection with this work we have had valuable assistance from Mr. Arthur D. Dean, under whom it was organized four years ago, and who is now Chief of the Division of Trade Schools in the New York State Department. The general direction of the work was in charge of Professor Kimball and its success is due in no small measure to his remarkable knowledge of the entire field of industry, and of education as related to it. Dr. Frank Rollins, Second Assistant Commissioner of Education for New York State, who has charge of secondary education, has given us the benefit of his counsel and help in different ways.


In the closely related Department of Drawing and Art, Mr. Furlong has had associated with him this year Mr. Harold H. Brown of the Stuyvesant High School, New York City, and in this way the Department has been able to give a greater amount of personal attention to its increased number of students. There is a constant inquiry for instruction in Domestic Science. The University has a fine outfit for this work in charge of two able instructors. I hope we may be able to include the subject next year. Four courses were given in the College of Civil Engineering. For these there seems likely to be a steady demand.


These informal gatherings, started three years ago by one group of instructors and students, have been very generally held this summer on Tuesday evenings. They supplement in a fine way the formal work of the classroom by furnishing opportunity to ask questions, to present and discuss problems of every day experience, with plenty of time for their full consideration. They have assumed various forms as seemed best in the judgment of the teaching staff. In some, papers by members of the class have been presented and discussed. In others, a round table plan has been followed with an assigned subject for the evening under the charge of a designated leader. A third plan has been to meet for an address by some scholar. All have been very successful. Any plan by which a student is made to feel that his particular problem is of importance, that it can and will receive adequate attention and discussion is most valuable.


The situation of the University offers peculiar advantages for out-of-door work. There is a large amount of illustrative material, for Geography, Botany, and Zoology, in the immediate vicinity. Such a fortunate combination of lake and stream, of mountain and marsh is rare. Full advantage has been taken this year of these opportunities. At the same time most successful excursions have been made to remoter points. These excursions have become distinct events in the life of the Summer Session, and the general desire on the part of students to participate in them has made the numbers attending so large as to cause embarrassment. Notable this year was the steam boat excursion of the Botanists to the north end of Cayuga Lake, and again to the peat bogs and ponds of the McLean district. Remarkably successful too were the all-day excursion of the students of Geography to Watkins, and the twoday excursion of the same to Niagara Falls. The watchful care and faithfulness of Professors Rowlee and Condra prevented any accident and brought the trips to a most successful close.


We have been able this year to enjoy an unusually large number of addresses in the evening. In addition to lectures by members of the summer staff, Professors Bailey, Catterall, Dennis, Hull, Molitor, and Needham kindly gave a lecture each on subjects connected with their own special studies. In connection with the lecture of Professor Dennis an organized exhibition of Morse Hall and the equipment of various departments there was given to a large and interested company.

Lectures were given also, in generous response to the request of the Director, by Dr. Frank Rollins, Assistant Commissioner of Education for the State of New York; by Mr. J. S. Whipple, Commissioner of Forest, Fish, and Game for the State of New York; by Professor 0. H. Richardson, of the University of Washington; and by President Andrew D. White. At the request of the Equal Franchise Society of New York, their representative, Mrs. Annis Ford Eastman of Elmira, made a most acceptable address. Two lectures were given by Mr. Frank H. Chapman, of the Museum of Natural History, New York City, and one by Mr. Louis A. Fuertes of Ithaca, N. Y. on the study of birds. Two delightful musical recitals were given by Mr. and Mrs. Eric Dudley, and Miss Gertrude Nye and Mr. William G. Egbert. All of these evenings were not merely entertaining but highly instructive. Particularly impressive was the address of Dr. White, the concluding sentences of which were in the nature of a personal address to the members of the Summer Session. By request these were printed and a copy placed in the hands of each student.

It was a matter of pride no less than pleasure to give wider circulation to this expression of the finest Cornell spirit.

It has been a distinct advantage to have Sage College open again and the opportunity for mutual acquaintance, and for comfortable living near the University buildings, has been thoroughly appreciated. Under the skillful direction of Miss Emily Hickman everything has gone smoothly. Miss Hickman also organized from members of the Summer Session a committee which took charge of the informal dances held on Saturday evenings. They added a pleasant feature to the social life of the summer. Religious meetings were held Sunday evenings on the slope west of the Library. These were well attended and very generally appreciated. Dr. C. M. Tyler and others had the kindness to make short addresses on these occasions. I believe the session of 1909 marks a steady advance in one of the useful educational activities of the University.

Respectfully submitted,
George P. Bristol,

Director of the Summer Session.

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