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The number of students has now come to be so large that we must at once consider the question of limiting the number. If the present legislature does not provide the additional facilities and maintenance that have been requested, we shall be forced, in my opinion, to limit the number of students to 800. I much dislike to limit the number of students, but it is better for the students and for all concerned that we receive only so many as can be handled effectively. This policy in the long run would produce the best results for the students and the State. If the people of the State desire that more students be given opportunities for college training in country life subjects, the relief lies in their own hands.


The persons in the College of Agriculture, staff, students, and all, constitute a social group. The institution is trying to work out a real social cooperative structure.

The students have associated themselves together in a number of organizations representing the several teaching and social activities. Some of these are open to farmers and women who have not been students in the College. The following clubs indicate the nature of this association: Lazy Club (Horticulture); Round-Up Club (Animal Husbandry); Synapsis Club (Plant-Breeding); Jugatæ (Entomology); Plant Doctors; Poultry Association; Cornell Chapter of American Society of Agronomy (composed of members of the faculty and graduate students); Agricultural Girls' Club; Cornell Agricultural Musical Clubs, representing the glee club and the mandolin club; the Athletic Advisory Council of the College of Agriculture, representing the track, crew, baseball, soccer football, and basketball interests; Cornell Dairy Students' Association; Cornell Horticultural Union (resident and former students); Students' Association of the New York State College of Agriculture (resident and former students); New York State Drainage Association (essentially not a student organization);, The Home-Makers' Conference (open to women throughout the State who wish to join. Winter-Course girls in Home Economics are eligible). The students in the winter-courses have their special clubs in addition, and each year have inter-club debates for the Morrison Winter-Course Trophy Cup. Most of the above organizations are represented and united in the Agricultural Association, which is the oldest association of students in Cornell University, having been organized in 1871.

The Agricultural Assembly, which meets on the first Thursday evening of each month during the College year, is the comprehensive association of the interests of the College, when Faculty and students meet together on a common social basis. The College has its own student oratorical stage, and its own student periodical, The Cornell Countryman. The Student Agricultural Extension Committee arranges for meetings of farmers in their local halls, and provides student and faculty speakers who discuss pertinent subjects.

All this student activity should be guided by a sympathetic man who is responsible to the administration of the College. Such guidance should produce results of the very greatest value in the building of character and in the training of young people to work together for the common good. It is with this purpose that I have framed out the field for A. R. Mann, who is in every way well adapted to this work. It represents a new department of activity, but I am convinced that it is capable of being made as important as any regular teaching department, and I hope that it will be maintained and encouraged. It is of the first importance that all the student forces, even outside of regular and recognized classes, be held in hand, and directed into useful and effective effort. This is more important in character-building than the formal work of a recitation-room.


The question of internal organization of departments in a college of agriculture needs now to be considered. The work of a high-class college of agriculture is no longer local. If it does its duty and meets its opportunities, it must cover the State with extension work. This means that some of the officers must be absent from the College a good part of the time. The people are entitled to receive instruction on their farms and at their homes by officers of experience and standing. I conceive that every well established department in this College of Agriculture should contain at least two full professors. One of these professors should be especially adapted to the local work in the College itself and the other to the extension work. When one is absent the other should be present, so that there is always a responsible officer of high rank in residence. Of course, one of the professors should be the ranking officer and be responsible for the policy of the department. All thoroughly good and sound work must rest on fundamental study and investigation, and one of the professors should represent this phase of the work. While I do not now express any opinion as to the relative importance of such fundamental study and the prosecution of extension work (since both are essential), it is nevertheless true that the position of the fundamental student is less likely to be safeguarded by public opinion, and for this reason, if for no other, I should like to see the headship of each department represented by a thoroughgoing investigator who would himself be a student of the fundamental problems involved in his subject. Of course, instructors and assistant professors would be needed in addition in all the departments, but at least two men should eventually be permanently a part of each independent department in the College.

This at once brings up the question as to what the ultimate departmental divisions in the College of Agriculture are to be. I do not intend to discuss this question in detail at this tine; I wish only to say that we have not yet nearly reached the ultimate departmental divisions in this College. This is particularly apparent in those departments that deal directly with the actual rearing of animals and growing of crops. On the crop side, for example, we have the two departments of "Farm Crops” and “Horticulture." These names do not represent units or entities. Eventually we must have departments representing such divisions as cereal-crops, hay-crops, fruit-crops, flower-crops, vegetable-crops, fibre-crops, and the like.

On the live-stock side, there should be departments of animal nutrition, animal breeding, stock-farm management or some other division representing the practice and business of rearing and handling animals, an officer who shall devote himself largely to stock-judging, and other officers who are expert in the different groups or species of animals; and in providing these departments we must not overlook bee-culture, fish-culture, and other branches that are yet little developed in the North American colleges. There is special need for scientific and long-continued investigation into the principles and practice of the breeding of domestic animals, a subject that remains practically unattacked notwithstanding voluminous writing on it. The proper study of this subject would entail much expense for animals, lands, equipment, and men; but sooner or later the inquiry must be undertaken. It is useless to begin work of this kind without ample facilities and the assurance that the work will be continuous. At this College, the live-stock interests have grown in recent years and we have no apologies to make as far as we have gone; but the work is far short of meeting the needs of the State.

All the work of the College of Agriculture should be tied together by the two departments of Farm Management and Rural Economy (or their equivalents), the beginnings of which we have already made.

My ideal of a college of agriculture is an institution that stands broadly for rural civilization and that includes within its scope such a range of subjects as will enable it to develop an entire philosophy or scheme of country life, as founded on agricultural pursuits. This means that such an institution must include within its range all the subjects that have to do with the growing, handling, and caring for crops, the rearing, handling, and caring for animals, and all the subjects that underlie the development of good farm homes, together with the social, economic, and educational questions involved. It must handle all the live-stock, forestry, cropping, and other questions. An institution that does not cover this general field is not entitled to call itself a college of agriculture.

If this conception of a college of agriculture is sound, then it follows that the New York State College of Agriculture must be expanded, and it must take in work that is now without its organization. It is now highly developed in some of its departments, but it does not cover the field.

In order to develop any of its work in the most fundamental way, great attention must be given to research, the spirit of the quest for truth dominating it and making it secure. The colleges of agriculture of the United States have little more than begun to do real research work.


The College of Agriculture is now growing so rapidly, both in its local and extension work, that the mere physical lack of foor space for lectures and laboratories has come to be acute. We are now face to face with the problem either of developing the space and equipment in the College of Agriculture or limiting the number of students who shall be received. Inasmuch as the new interest in country life is only beginning to express itself, it would seem to be too bad for the State to limit the facilities for collegiate instruction and extension work; yet this is a question that the State itself must settle. We cannot be expected to receive more students than can be accommodated with the facilities that the State provides.

Great pressure is now beginning to be felt in our animal husbandry work, including in that phrase the work both of Professors Wing and Rice. The location of the new barns far to the eastward makes it imperative that the instruction given by Professor Wing's department be housed in that direction and removed from the present College compound. This means that not only must additional barns be provided, but that a new animal husbandry building must be erected somewhere in the neighborhood of the barn area. The Poultry Department is very much cramped in its present quarters, and it has wholly outgrown its facilities. This Department should have a large building for class rooms, laboratories, and offices. At least twenty acres, and probably more, should be provided for the use of the Poultry Department. This means that this Department must also go far to the eastward, and that new buildings must be provided somewhere in that direction. Enlarged quarters and facilities for the Department of Poultry Husbandry is probably the most imperative departmental need at present.

The Agronomy building should be extended to double its present capacity. You will recall that in the original plans the building was considerably larger than at present, it being cut down to come within the funds available. This building houses several departments and is the most congested part of the College buildings at present.

The Department of Farm Mechanics is in great need of room and equipment. It now occupies one small end of the basement of the Agronomy building. If this Department is to grow, it will need to have a building and equipment of its own. Machinery and implements require much room not only for storage, but they demand large laboratory space if students are to work with them effectively.

The Home Economics work is now well established in the College, and is growing. If it at all adequately meets the needs of the State it must have a separate building of its own. There is the greatest necessity that means be provided for training the farm woman in home-making, nutrition, furnishing, and all else that goes to make up effective woman's work. I have long felt that the main building

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