of these professors should be especially adapted to the local work in the College itself and the other to the extension work. When one is absent the other should be present, so that there is always a responsible officer of high rank in residence. Of course, one of the professors should be the ranking officer and be responsible for the policy of the department. All thoroughly good and sound work must rest on fundamental study and investigation, and one of the professors should represent this phase of the work. While I do not now express any opinion as to the relative importance of such fundamental study and the prosecution of extension work (since both are essential), it is nevertheless true that the position of the fundamental student is less likely to be safeguarded by public opinion, and for this reason, if for no other, I should like to see the headship of each department represented by a thoroughgoing investigator who would himself be a student of the fundamental problems involved in his subject. Of course, instructors and assistant professors would be needed in addition in all the departments, but at least two men should eventually be permanently a part of each independent department in the College.

This at once brings up the question as to what the ultimate departmental divisions in the College of Agriculture are to be. I do not intend to discuss this question in detail at this tine; I wish only to say that we have not yet nearly reached the ultimate departmental divisions in this College. This is particularly apparent in those departments that deal directly with the actual rearing of animals and growing of crops. On the crop side, for example, we have the two departments of "Farm Crops” and “Horticulture." These names do not represent units or entities. Eventually we must have departments representing such divisions as cereal-crops, hay-crops, fruit-crops, flower-crops, vegetable-crops, fibre-crops, and the like.

On the live-stock side, there should be departments of animal nutrition, animal breeding, stock-farm management or some other division representing the practice and business of rearing and handling animals, an officer who shall devote himself largely to stock-judging, and other officers who are expert in the different groups or species of animals; and in providing these departments we must not overlook bee-culture, fish-culture, and other branches that are yet little developed in the North American colleges. There is special need for scientific and long-continued investigation into the principles and practice of the breeding of domestic animals, a subject that remains practically unattacked notwithstanding voluminous writing on it. The proper study of this subject would entail much expense for animals, lands, equipment, and men; but sooner or later the inquiry must be undertaken. It is useless to begin work of this kind without ample facilities and the assurance that the work will be continuous. At this College, the live-stock interests have grown in recent years and we have no apologies to make as far as we have gone; but the work is far short of meeting the needs of the State.

All the work of the College of Agriculture should be tied together by the two departments of Farm Management and Rural Economy (or their equivalents), the beginnings of which we have already made.

My ideal of a college of agriculture is an institution that stands broadly for rural civilization and that includes within its scope such a range of subjects as will enable it to develop an entire philosophy or scheme of country life, as founded on agricultural pursuits. This means that such an institution must include within its range all the subjects that have to do with the growing, handling, and caring for crops, the rearing, handling, and caring for animals, and all the subjects that underlie the development of good farm homes, together with the social, economic, and educational questions involved. It must handle all the live-stock, forestry, cropping, and other questions. An institution that does not cover this general field is not entitled to call itself a college of agriculture.

If this conception of a college of agriculture is sound, then it follows that the New York State College of Agriculture must be expanded, and it must take in work that is now without its organization. It is now highly developed in some of its departments, but it does not cover the field.

In order to develop any of its work in the most fundamental way, great attention must be given to research, the spirit of the quest for truth dominating it and making it secure. The colleges of agriculture of the United States have little more than begun to do real research work.


The College of Agriculture is now growing so rapidly, both in its local and extension work, that the mere physical lack of foor space for lectures and laboratories has come to be acute. We are now face to face with the problem either of developing the space and equipment in the College of Agriculture or limiting the number of students who shall be received. Inasmuch as the new interest in country life is only beginning to express itself, it would seem to be too bad for the State to limit the facilities for collegiate instruction and extension work; yet this is a question that the State itself must settle. We cannot be expected to receive more students than can be accommodated with the facilities that the State provides.

Great pressure is now beginning to be felt in our animal husbandry work, including in that phrase the work both of Professors Wing and Rice. The location of the new barns far to the eastward makes it imperative that the instruction given by Professor Wing's department be housed in that direction and removed from the present College compound. This means that not only must additional barns be provided, but that a new animal husbandry building must be erected somewhere in the neighborhood of the barn area. The Poultry Department is very much cramped in its present quarters, and it has wholly outgrown its facilities. This Department should have a large building for class rooms, laboratories, and offices. At least twenty acres, and probably more, should be provided for the use of the Poultry Department. This means that this Department must also go far to the eastward, and that new buildings must be provided somewhere in that direction. Enlarged quarters and facilities for the Department of Poultry Husbandry is probably the most imperative departmental need at present.

The Agronomy building should be extended to double its present capacity. You will recall that in the original plans the building was considerably larger than at present, it being cut down to come within the funds available. This building houses several departments and is the most congested part of the College buildings at present.

The Department of Farm Mechanics is in great need of room and equipment. It now occupies one small end of the basement of the Agronomy building. If this Department is to grow, it will need to have a building and equipment of its own. Machinery and implements require much room not only for storage, but they demand large laboratory space if students are to work with them effectively.

The Home Economics work is now well established in the College, and is growing. If it at all adequately meets the needs of the State it must have a separate building of its own. There is the greatest necessity that means be provided for training the farm woman in home-making, nutrition, furnishing, and all else that goes to make up effective woman's work. I have long felt that the main building of a Home Economics department should be modeled somewhat after a large and commodious farm-house, in which an ample domestic chemical laboratory could be maintained, and with suitable rooms in which instruction in decoration and furnishing and household arts could be given and illustrated. This Department is now housed in very small rooms on the top floor of the Main building, and is much crowded.

We are not meeting our responsibilities in respect to the training of teachers for rural communities. We have had the nucleus of a Normal Department for some time, but it is not growing in the way that it should. It has practically no offices of its own, and has no laboratories or lecture rooms. I have long felt that such a Department should have an actual rural school in operation as a part of its laboratory equipment, and have been greatly disappointed that my efforts of many years in this direction have practically failed. I urge most careful attention to this Department of the College of Agriculture.

Quarters must speedily be secured for the Department of Rural Art. This Department has never had a class-room. In fact, it has no place in the College of Agriculture except one small office that has no window. The drafting work is now done in the drawing rooms of the College of Architecture. This arrangement has been satisfactory to us and we should be glad to continue it; but the time is practically at hand when, because of the growth of both the College of Architecture and of our Rural Art work, other quarters must be provided for the drafting. Plan work of the kind that a landscape architect must do requires large space. I do not think that the importance of this Department has generally been appreciated, but I am convinced that we must develop the attractiveness of the scenery of the open country if we are to make rural life as attractive and satisfying as it is capable of being. The purpose of our Department of Rural Art is not only to train landscape architects, but also to develop a point of view in all our students on the necessity of good surroundings in rural homes, school grounds, churches, cemeteries, highways, and all other spaces. There is a growing demand for our advice on these matters from farmers, school officers, and others. It is not the purpose of the Rural Art Department to do the work that lies properly within the field of the professional landscape architector landscape gardener. The development of rural art really lies mostly outside the field of professional practice and comes within the scope of the activities of an educational institution. · Any awakening of public sentiment as to the necessity of better surroundings in the farming country should increase the general demand for professional practice as well as be of inestimable value to the people themselves. I have long had in mind a low building of the bungalow type neatly placed in an attractive planting, which should be the home of our Rural Art Department, from which should radiate the best ideas on the improving of country surroundings.

In this connection I desire to call attention to the fact that on our University farms there should be model farm houses of different sizes and costs. These houses should be used for our farm workmen and others employed by us, the extra rooms, if any, to be rented to students. These houses should represent the best art and practice in rural architecture. Within a generation, practically all the farm buildings in New York State must be rebuilt, or remodeled, not only because they are largely old or in poor repair but also because they must be adapted to new conditions. I do not know of any other agency than this College of Agriculture that shall lead in giving advice on this very important subject. I would not invade the field of the practicing professional architect; but the practicing architect is not likely to take up farm architecture as a business because the fees would be too small to make it attractive to him. This Department, like that of Rural Art, must arise from some institution maintained by the people. All this naturally demands a Department of Rural Architecture in the College of Agriculture.

I wish also to call attention to the very unsatisfactory condition of our Agricultural Chemistry so far as facilities are concerned. We have only one professor in this great field and he is housed in rooms that are entirely insufficient for the best work, and the smallness of which prevents any adequate growth of the Department. As compared with the leading colleges of agriculture and with the necessary demands of our work, our Agricultural Chemistry needs to be at least trebled, together with provision for its steady growth in the future. What policy should obtain in connecting this work with the Department of Chemistry of the College of Arts and Sciences, is also a question that should now be considered. We should soon determine whether the Agricultural Chemistry is to remain with the general University Chemistry or whether it is to have quarters by itself. I feel that we cannot long maintain our standing without developing our chemical work far beyond its present extent and scope.

The above sketch suggests the most pressing needs in the way of new buildings, all of which are needed at the present time in order to

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