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make our work thoroughly effective and to enable us to do what the people of the State are asking us to do. Personally, I should feel like acquainting the legislature at once with the whole situation and outlining an entire program. If that is done, other needs than the above must, of course, be included. I mention only those that seem to be at the moment most necessitous.

I assume that means will be taken to complete the greenhouse structures, which are now in the process of being begun, and also to extend the barns from year to year; and if the present legislature does not provide an auditorium, the necessity for it should be pressed again at the next session.

OUR REMOTE LANDS

It should be understood that the New York State College of Agriculture labors under special difficulties in respect to its farms. The fact that the College buildings and the University in general are separated widely from the farm land constitutes such a handicap that I fear it will be impossible ever to develop the most satisfactory college of agriculture under our conditions. Farms are laboratories. They need to be in observation by students continually and we must develop such an educational process as will take students out-ofdoors and into contact with the actual objects, conditions, and affairs. The buildings of the College of Agriculture are on a narrow isthmus with no cultivable land on either side or either end. The necessity to develop the buildings of the animal husbandries (including general livestock and poultry) on the Preswick farin, and the experimental plats on the Mitchell farm, removes the larger part of our farm operations beyond the effective reach of students. Even if, as proposed, some quick means of communication, as by trolley, should eventually be provided it will nevertheless be at the best only a makeshift, and will not enable us to develop educational processes from the land in the most effective way. The great difficulties of the dismemberment of the College buildings over a long and narrow strip of land will become more apparent as time proceeds. There are practically no areas suitable for gardens, specimen plants, test grounds, and the like, about the Agricultural buildings. On the back, to the north, the land is not cultivable and is needed for campus, and on the south the area has been taken entirely by the athletic fields. I am aware, of course, that this condition cannot now be corrected: but I think it my duty to call attention to this very real obstruction in order that in the future development of the College the matter may be in mind and every possible means may be taken to reduce the handicap, even though it cannot be removed.

Aside from the difficulties with the remoteness of lands, the separation of the buildings over such a long stretch of territory will impose difficulties that can scarcely be overcome without injury to the work of instruction.

EXTENSION WORK

occur.

There is the greatest necessity for this College of Agriculture to conduct Extension Work on a broad basis and under a definite and well-considered plan. At present, we are only touching the problem here and there. New York State should start out a thoroughgoing survey to determine what are the native and actual agricultural resources of the State. A definite program should be made to which the College can work systematically for a series of years. I do not see how the best progress can be made in developing the internal resources in the State unless we have knowledge of our actual conditions and take stock of farms, soils, wood lots, streams, schools, rural churches, country organizations, markets, social and economic conditions, and all other factors that underlie a worthy rural civilization.

At the same time we must undertake to aid the farmers of the State by attacking their problems directly on the farms where they

This work of itself demands a large force of well trained men, and the people are constantly making more demands on us for this purpose than we are able to satisfy.

A large part of the responsibility of keeping New York near the front rank as an agricultural state falls on the College of Agriculture. Our officers are willing and glad to assume the responsibility, if they are given means with which to work.

Demonstration and test work on farms, soil and other surveys, reading-courses, nature-study, agriculture in the schools, work with teachers, boys' and girls' clubs, work with the fairs, lectures, inspection of herds, orchards, and other farm properties, the giving of personal advice on occasion, correspondence with the people on all lines of agricultural subjects—these and similar activities constitute the proper and necessary Extension Work of the College. There is every indication that this work, in which this College has so long held a leading position, must be curtailed rather than extended; and this would be a direct loss to the State.

APPEAL TO THE PEOPLE

I think the time has come when this College of Agriculture should throw itself directly on the people of the State, acquainting them with the work that needs to be done and letting them feel the responsibility to see that means are secured for carrying it forward. The responsibility must rest with the people and they must be made to understand that it is so. The people, also, should have more direct voice in the management of the College. We are not engaged primarily in developing an institution, but in conserving the welfare and developing the internal resources of the State. The legislature does not yet realize that a college of this kind should become a regular part of the State program. It is not merely another institution, competing with those already in existence, but a new kind of enterprise having for its object the betterment of the State and the training of young men and women to live hopefully and resourcefully in the country

I wish to repeat, what I have so many times expressed, that we are beginning a college of agriculture, not completing one. Few persons even yet realize what aids an institution of this kind will contribute to the welfare of the future. I am in position to appreciate this, for the most urgent requests are constantly coming to my desk from all departments in the College for the means to do useful work. These are all unselfish. They are not requests to empower an officer to build up his department, but to enable him to do work for his fellows all over the State. I am powerless to provide the means, and I see the opportunities pass and the men grow old and the work of the people remaining not done. I should have liked the opportunity to have gone directly to the people with a plan complete enough to have appealed to their imagination.

Respectfully submitted,

L. H. Bailey,
Director of the New York State College of Agriculture.

APPENDIX IX

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE COLLEGE OF

ARCHITECTURE

To the President of the University:

Sir:- I have the honor to submit the following report for the College of Architecture for the year 1908–09:

The attendance in the College has increased from 100 students last year to 133 this year, thus bringing about the condition of overcrowding that I ventured to predict in my report of two years ago as a possibility. Inasmuch as the capacity of the drafting rooms in White Hall is so sharply and definitely limited this is a serious problem.

The success of the work under present conditions is unquestionably due in large measure to the great drafting room in White Hall that has permitted all of the students in the elements of architecture and design to work in close touch with each other. This close contact of the men and classes gives unlimited opportunity for comparison of work, exchange of ideas, mutual criticism, etc., and makes possible more satisfactory results with less of formal criticism and instruction by the regular teaching staff than would be possible otherwise. In my opinion any plan requiring separation of these classes would make impossible the continuance of the present high standard of work in architecture. In other words, the problem involves not only the question of room, but also that of cost and efficiency of instruction.

Since we have been in White Hall the students in landscape design have done their work in the drafting room with the students in architecture. Only their small number has made this possible, and even so they have been crowded and buffeted about this year in a way that must have been exceedingly trying and only tolerable because of the association with things so directly valuable to their work, such as the library and the work in architecture.

I am unable now to see any possible way whereby these students can be provided for in White Hall next year, but their going will be a distinct loss both to them and to us, because of the very close relation between landscape design and architecture. The bringing together of the work in these two subjects has helped the architects by offering constant suggestion, and I believe that the relation has been equally helpful in the same way to the landscape students. If the separation is inevitable under present conditions, I trust it may not be accepted as a permanent condition, but that any larger plan for the future may contemplate as a matter of course the housing of the students in landscape design with those in architecture. I do not wish to be understood as suggesting any change in organization, as that question is not necessarily involved from the educational point of view.

Whether or not the increase in attendance will continue it is impossible to forsee; but I see no reason why it should not, though the rate of increase can hardly be expected to remain at 30% a year. The advance in tuition from $125 to $150, though still leaving our tuition lower than in the other eastern schools, may have some slight effect upon students hesitating between an eastern school and a state college where the tuition is nominal, and upon that very small class who through indecision between architecture and engineering may have been influenced heretofore by the lower tuition in architecture. These, however, are probably so few in number as to be negligible. The effective factor in the situation is the tremendous art awakening throughout the country headed by the architects whose profession is in consequence taking a relatively higher place in the fine arts than ever before. This adds attractiveness in a social and business way to a profession already very attractive in itself. Such a condition must continue to attract more and better men and to stimulate higher and better training; and the only reason for expecting a lower rate of increase in the future is that Cornell may have been getting slightly more than her proportion in a movement that has been general.

I have no hope of being able to house the College of Architecture under normal development in the present quarters in White and Franklin Halls for more than another year, or two years at most. The room in both buildings probably will be used next year to the absolute limit of capacity and after that we must either have enlarged quarters or definitely limit the number of students to be admitted. The latter course, while undemocratic and not altogether in keeping with Cornell spirit, would be much better than to sacrifice standards by a further division that would separate the classes in design by removing a part of them to a third building.

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