63. durchsucht, like durchbricht and durchgräbt.

64. des Vaters Schlafgemach, the father's bed-room. In common life, das Schlafzimmer, die Schlafkammer, or die Schlafstube. The word Gemach, neuter, is of the higher styles of writing. We commonly say Schlafgemach only of the bed-rooms of persons of high distinction. Das heimliche Gemach, the secret chamber, is a refined expression for a water-closet.

65. und findt, and finds; findet; from finden.

66. mit leichter Müh, with light trouble, with little trouble. mit, with, preposition, always governs the dative; mit mir, with me; mit ihnen, with you. Leichter, dat. fem. of the adjective leicht, because Müh is fem.; commonly die Mühe. Geben sie sich nicht die Mühe, do not give yourself that trouble.

67. wie grosz, how great. wie, adv. of inter. how; sometimes it is the conjunction as. Er ist so grosz wie ich, he is as tall as I am. Wie befinden sie sich? how do

you find yourself? how do you

do ? 68. war sein Vergnügen, was his pleasure; das Vergnügen, the pleasure; Ich hoffe ich werde das Vergnügen haben sie morgen hier zu sehen, I hope I shall have the pleasure of seeing you here tomorrow.

69. ihn unter einer Diele liegen, him (it) under a deal lie, it lying under a deal. unter, prep. under, governs both the dative and accusative. die Diele, the deal, the board, the plank ; legen, the infin. instead of the part. act. in English.


70. The following was written by C. F. Weisse, who died at Leipzig in 1804


Gütig hüllt in Finsternissen,
Gott die Zukunft ein;
Deutlich sie voraus zu wissen,
Würde Strafe seyn.

Säb ich Glück auf meinem Wege,
Würd'ich stolz mich blähn;
Und leichtsinnig oder träge,
Meinen Zweck versehn.

Säh'ich Unglück würd'ich zittern
Und die künftge Zeit
Würde mir das Glück verbittern
Das mich jetzt erfreut.

Was ich habe will ich nützen,
Fernen Gram nicht scheun;
Und soll ich ein Glück besitzen
Meines Glücks mich freun.

PRYING INTO FUTURITY. Kindly does the Deity envelop the future in darkness; to know it distinctly beforehand would be a punishment. Should I see good fortune on my path, I should proudly be puffed up, and from levity or indolence miss my aim. If I saw misfortune, I should tremble, and the future would imbitter the happiness which at present glad. dens me. I will enjoy what I have, without fearing any distant barm, and if I am to be fortunate, I will rejoice in my good fortune.



[ocr errors]

71. Der Vorwitz das Künftige zu wissen, the indiscreet curiosity the future to know, to know the future. The German infinitive is always preceded by its government. Die Sprache zu lernen ist nicht schwer, aber sie richtig zu sprechen ist etwas schwerer, to learn the language is not difficult, but to speak the language correctly is a little more difficult. The Germans have four words for curiosity. When it is a laudable curiosity, directed to the acquisition of knowledge, it is die Wiszbegierde, (the desire of knowing) from wissen, to know, "savoir," and die

Begierde, the desire : when it is a rational wish to be informed of the events passing around us, it is die Neubegierde, (the desire of news from new, new," (pro

() nounce noi, almost like oi in the English moist) : when it is an indiscreet inquisitiveness in matters that do not concern us at all, and proceeding from base passions, like envy, jealousy, calumny, and others, it is die Neugier, (the greediness of news): and lastly, when it pries into futurity, it is der Vorwitz, (foreknowledge). The four words will give you some idea of the creative power of the language in making compound words, which are immediately known by intuition. Its inexhaustible treasures must not frighten you; they are readily stored in the memory, being mostly derived from primitive words or particles in constant vse; as here, Begierde, desire; gierig, greedy; neu, new; wissen, to

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]

know. Remember these well, and


will know a thousand others by their means. Das Künftige, the future ; the adjective künftig, future, what is to come, is used here in the nominative, as an abstract substantive. It is also used adverbially, like most German adjectives: Ich werde künftig fleissiger seyn, I shall in future more diligently be, I shall be more diligent in future. The substantive is die Zukunft, futurity. You have it in the second line.

72. Gülig hüllt in Finsternissen Gott die Zukunft ein, kindly envelops in darkness God futurity. God kindly en. velops futurity in darkness. Gülig, adj. kind, adv. kindly, stands nearly in the same relation to gut, good, as the English kind. It never means without imperfection, but always inclined to benevolence: Sie sind sehr gülig, you are very kind. Hüllt ein, from the separable regular compound verb, einhüllen, to envelop, made of hüllen, to wrap, to cover, and the particle ein, in, into; to wrap in. So we say, einsingen, to sing to sleep; einfallen, to fall in ; einsenken, to sink in, act.; einschneiden, to cut into, like the Latin - incidere."

The substantive die Hülle, a wrapper, a hull, a husk, a covering. Die Finsterniz, pl. isse, darkness, obscurity, eclipse. Hence we say, eine Mondfinsternisz, ein Sonnenfinsternisz, an eclipse of the

moon, of The words in isz are mostly feminine, though there are several neuter, as das Gedächtnisz, the memory; dus Begräbnisz, the funeral. Befugnisz, which Mr. Rowbotham makes neuter, is most generally feminine. We say, ich habe keine Befugnisz dazu, I have no right, no claim to it. Gott, masc. God, es, e, pl. Göller, gods.

73. Deutlich sie voraus zu wissen, distinctly it (her, fem. because it refers to Zukunfi, fem.) beforehand to know, to know it distinctly beforehand. Deutlich, adj. and adv. distinct, plain : eine deutliche Ausspruche, a distinct articulation.

74. würde Strafe seyn, would punishment be, would be a punishment. Die Strafe, fem. ; hence strafen, reg. verb active, to punish.

75. Säh ich Gluck auf meinem Wege, saw I luck upon my way ; should I see, or if I saw, good fortune on my road. The Germans are at liberty to express a condition in any verb, by throwing the nominative behind, as is done in English, with “ had I a fortune, were I a rich man,"

the sun.


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

instead of, if I had, if I were: and as the conditional tense requires two words, ich würde sehen, I should see, the imperfect of the subjunctive is often preferred for conciseness sake. Sähe ich is here employed for würde ich sehen. It is the imperfect subjunctive of the irregular active, sehen, to see, which has nearly the same irregularities as the English, to see. In the present indicative, ich sehe, du siehst, er sieht, I see, &c. the plural is regular, the imperfect indicative ich sah, I saw; and in the subjunctive, with the diphthong, ich sähe, I might see. The participle past is gesehen, seen. Ich habe sie gestern in der Kirche gesehn,

saw you yesterday at church.

76. das Glück, es, e, neuter, no plural, luck, good fortune, happiness; hence glücklich, lucky, happy, fortunate. Beglücken, to make happy. Unglück, neut. misfortune.

77. der Weg, es, e, die Wege, m. the way, the road, the path. The adv. weg, away, is construed as in English. Weg mit ihm! away with him ! The highway, die Landstrasse. Würd’ich stoltz mich blähn, should I proudly myself puff up, I should proudly be puffed up. Sich blähn is a reflected verb, to puff one's self. The reflected verbs in German follow the English rule; they make their compound tenses with the verb “to have;" the only difference is, that they put the pron. pers. acc. as govern ment, between the auxiliary and the principal verb. Ich kabe mich gebläht, I have myself puffed, instead of, I have puffed myself

. Ich würde mich blähn, I should poff myself. You have here, würde ich, the nom. behind the verb, on account of the words säh'ich Glück auf meinem Wege, placed adverbially at the head of the sentence, and modifying the assertion by the condition“ if I saw." Stoltz, or stolz, as modern writers spell it, adj. and adv. proud, proudly. Der Stolz, es, e, m. To plural, pride. In common life we say, Sich vor Stolz blähn, to puff one's-self up out of pride, from pride.

78. Und leichtsinnig oder träge meinen Zweck versehn, and lightly or indolently my aim miss, -and through levity or indolence miss my aim. Leichtsinnig, full of levity, and träge, indolent, are two adj. used adverbially. Versehn, to miss, from sehn, to see; and the inseparable particle ver, which very often denotes "amiss,” particularly with reflected verbs: Ich habe mich verschrieben, I made a


mistake in writing ; ich habe mich versehen, I made a mistake, I saw wrong. Versehn refers to würde ich, with which it is the conditional, I should miss. Der Zweck, es, e, pl. e, the aim, object, end in view. All the words in eck are masculine.

79. Säh' ich Unglück, should I see misfortune, if I saw misfortune. Das Unglück, es, e, n. no pl. like the primitive Glück. Würd ich zittern, I should tremble. Zittern, r. v. n. to tremble. We say, die Hand zittert ihm, the hand trembles to him ; like the French, “la main lui tremble,or, er zittert mit der Hand, he trembles with the hand, for “ his hand trembles ;" and like the English, er zittert vor Furcht, he trembles for fear.

80. Und die küntftge Zeit, and the future time, the time to come. Künftge is a poetical contraction for Künftige, sem, of künftig, with the article definite. In common conversation we say, ins künftge, instead of ins künftige, for the future; Künftige Woche, next week; Künftiges Jahr, next year; Künftigen Montag, next Monday.

81. Würde mir das Glück verbittern, would me the luck imbitter, would imbitter the good fortune. Verbittern, r. insep. c. a. v. from the adj. bitter, hitter, and the insep. particle ver, which whenever it is affixed to active verbs formed of adjectives, denotes imparting the quality expressed by the adj.: as verbittern, to make bitter ; verjüngen, to make young; verdünnen, to make thin; veredeln, to ennoble.

82. Das mich jetzt erfreut, which me at present gladdens, which gladdens me at present. Das is the art. def. neuter, used as pron, relative, which throws the verb to the end. If it were the pronoun demonstrative,

would say, das erfreut mich, that gladdens me, that rejoices me, Jetzt or jetzo, itzo, jitzo, itzt, adv. at present.

83. erfreut, from erfreuen, to gladden, to rejoice, an insep. comp. reg. act. verb, made of freuen, to rejoice, and the inseparable particle er, which here strengthens the idea expressed by the primitive verb.

84. Was ich habe, what I have; will ich nützen, will I use, I will enjoy. Again the nom, behind, on account of the gov. being before. In the logical order you would say, ich will nützen was ich habe. Der Nutzen, the utility; nützlich, useful.

[ocr errors]

that, you

« ͹˹Թõ