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and it (the tree) protects those who are within against the sun, the cold, and the wind. Diejenigen die, or die die, those who, but the poet leaves out one die. beschützen, reg. verb, to protect, derived from schützen, which has the same meaning; but the inseparable particle be renders the government of the verb a more particular object of its action. darinnen, for darin, is rather obsolete, it means within ; gegen, prep. gov. acc. against, in the sense of towards or meeting the object

, not in the sense of opposition or resistance; this is always expressed by wider. Gegen den Wind, is against the wind, meeting the wind; wider den Wind, against the wind, struggling against the wind.

132. die Sonne, fem. the sun. The late Mr. Harris betrayed his ignorance of the German language in his Hermes, when he asserted that the sun must in all languages be of necessity masculine, and the moon feminine. In German it is exactly the reverse--der Mond, masc. die Sonne, fem.

133. die Kälte, fem. the cold; der Wind, masc. the wind. In the language of seafaring men, ein widriger wind, is a foul wind; ein durche widrige Winde aufgehaltenes Schiff, a ship which is wind-bound. Der Wind schrahlt, or der Wind läuft schief, the wind scants; der Wind läuft um, the wind chops about, fig.; and in familiar language, Wind machen, to fib; Wind bekommen, to get secret intelligence.

134. Und eine gute Nachtigall, and a good nightingale, meaning a pretty or clever nightingale.

135. Singt auf den Buum so süssen Schall, sings on the tree so sweet sound, so sweet a song; singen, irr. verb, to sing; ich singe, ich sang, ich babe gesungen. Süss, adj. sweet.

136. Dass jeder der vorüber geht, that every one who by passes, who passes by. Vorüber gehen is a sep. comp. verb (derived from gehen, to go, irr. ich gehe, ich ging, ich bin gegangen) to go by, to pass by; ich gehe vorüber, ich ging vorüber, ich bin vorüber gegangen. Sie geht alle Tage unserm Hause vorüber, she passes every day by house ; Ich weiss nicht ob sie unserm Hause vorüber geht, I do not know whether she passes by our house. But in common conversation we should more readily use the verb, vorbeigehen, which has the same meaning. Some

church-yards in Germany have this inscription over their entrance :

Alle die vorübergeht,
Sehet wie es um euch stebt;
Was ihr seyd, das waren wir,
Was wir sind, das werdet ibr.

All ye

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that pass by, look to it how matters stand with you; what are you (now), that we were (once), (and) you will become what we are (now). 137. Goethe says:

“Kannst du sagen : das ist! da alles vorübergeht ?" Can you say of any thing that it is, when every thing is passing by, is transitory.

138. Ihr zuzuhören stille steht, to listen to her still stands ; stands still to listen to her. ihr, dat. fem. because die Nachtigall, to which it refers, is fem.; zuzuhören, the verb is zuhören, to listen to. As it is a separ. comp. (derived from hören, to hear, with the particle zu) the zu, to, before the inf. is placed between the particle (which also happens to be zu) and the verb, Ich kann Ihnen nicht zuhören, I cannot listen to you; Ich habe nicht Zeit Ihnen zuzuhören, I have not time to listen to you;

Ich höre Ihnen gerne zu, I listen to you with pleasure; Hören sir mir zu, listen to me. In some compound verbs, zu denotes a closing, as in zusiegeln, to seal; zuschliessen, to lock; zumachen, to shut, &c. and in others a continuation, as in zufahren, to drive on in a coach ; zugehen, to go on; gehen Sie nur immer zu, go but on; Stille stchen, to stand still; Stehen sie stille, stand still; Das Kind steht nicht stille, the child does not stand still. The compound verbs formed with adjectives and substantives follow the same rules as those formed with separable particles. Thus we had above, Wind machen, to fib; which makes, ich mache Wind, ich machte Wind, ich habe Wind gemacht, and in the infinitive, Wind zu machen. Ich mache niemals Wind und ich habe keine Neigung Wind zu machen, I never fib, and I feel no inclination to fib.

139. Du kleine mit dem blondem Haar, thou little (one) with the fair hair. Observe that the Germans may convert their adjectives into substantives, denoting even individuals, with the article definite; die kleine, the little girl ; der fröliche, the cheerful man. Hence such an adjective may be construed in the vocative, as here, only the gender

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must be marked ; if “ thou little one” were addressed to a boy, it would be du kleiner. das Haar, es, e, pl. die Haare, the hair. In common life, we rather use the word in the plural. Sie hat schwarze Haare, she has black hair. Blond, adj. is the same with the French blond," and means “fair," speaking of either the hair or the complexion. der Blonde, masc. is what the French call “ le blondin," and die Blonde, la blondine.

140. Die längst schon ineine Freude war, who long ago already my joy was ; who has long since been my joy. Die, pron. rel. fem. throws the verb war to the end of the sentence. längst, adv. long since, long ago. The adverb schon, already, tacked to it, is a strengthening expletive. Längst must not be confounded with längs, prep. along; längs dem Wege, along the road; wir sind längs dem Ufer spatzieren gegangen, we walked along the banks: nor with längstens, adv. of time, at the latest. Er wird längstens in einer Stunde zu Hause seyn, he will be at home at latest in one hour hence.

141. die Freude, fem. joy, satisfaction, pleasure. It has this last meaning, particularly in the pl. die Freuden des Lebens, the pleasures of life ; Er hat Freude an seinen Kindern, he is happy in his children ; Ich mache mir eine Freude daraus Ihnen zu dienen, I am bappy to serve you, tu render you service.

142. Ich gehe, I go, here means, I am going home to my hut; rauhe Winde wehen, rough winds blow; the winds blow roughly. rauh, adj. rough, harsh, uneven, uncouth, rugged; ein rauher Weg, a rugged road; eine rauhe Haut, a rough skin; rauhes Land, uncultivated ground; Eine rauhe Stimme haben, to have a voice that is rather hoarse, rauh mit jemand umgehen, to treat a person roughly. Wehen, reg. verb act. and neut. to blow; Es wehete ein frischer Wind vom Lande her, there was fresh breeze from the land: der Wind hat allen Schnee auf einen Haufen geweht, the wind has blown all the snow into a heap.

143. Willst du mit mir ins Hüttchen gehn? wilt thou with me into the little hut

go; wilt thou


with me into the little but? ins Hültchen is a contraction for in das Hüttchen; in here governs the acc. because it represents the English into, and marks a change of place. This last

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line, in the language of politeness to a stranger, would be, Wollen Sie mit mir gehn? Endeavour to master all the auxiliary verbs, and to familiarize yourself with the rule that the government of the verb and every circumstance relating to it must stand between the auxiliary and the principal verb. Will you write a letter to your father ? Wollen Sie einen Brief an Ihren Vater schreiben? I wanted to write last night, but I had no paper; Ich wollte gestern Abend schreiben aber ich hatte kein Papier.


144. We now select one of Goethe's Songs, which probably suggested the first lines of Lord Byron's Bride of Abydos :

Kennst du das Land wo die Citronen blühn,
Im dunkeln Laub die Goldorangen glühn,
Ein sanfter Wind vom blauen Himmel weht,
Die Mirthe still, und hoch der Lorbeer steht?
Kennst du es wobl? Dahin-dahin-
Möcht' ich mit dir, o mein Geliebter ziebn!

Kennst du das Haus ? auf Säulen ruht sein Dach;
Es glänzt der Saal, es schimmert das Gemach,
Und Marmorbilder stehn und sehn mich an :
Was hat man dir, du armes Kind, gethan?
Kennst du es wohl? Dabin-dahin
Möcht' ich mit dir, o mein Beschützer, zieho !
Kennst du den Berg und seinen Wolkensteg?
Das Maulthier sucht im Nebel seinen Weg ;
In Höhlen wohnt der Drachen alte Brut;
Es stürzt der Fels und über ihn die Fluth,
Kennst du ihn wohl? Dahin-dabin
Geht unser Weg; o Vater, lass uns ziehn!

KNOWEST thou the land where citrons blosom? where in the dark foliage the golden oranges glow? where a soft wind from the blue Heaven blows ? tbe myrıle still, and high the laurel stands? Thither, thither, O my beloved one! I should like to remove with thee. Knowest thou the house ? on pillars rests its roof; its hall sparkles, its chambers glitter, and marble statues stand and look at me, (as if they were saying,) what have they done to thee, poor child ? Knowest thou it well ? Thither, thither, O my protector, I should like to remove with thee! Knowest thou the mountain and its cloudy path? The mule seeks its way in the mist; the old brood of Dragons dwells in its caves; the rock falls down, and the flood over it. Knowest thou it well? Thither, thither, leads our way. O father, let us go!

145. Kennst du das Land, knowest thou the land, doest thou know the land ? from the irr. kennen, to know, (connoître, “cognoscere,") ich kenne, ich kannte, ich habe gekannt. das Land, neut. the land, the country, the soil. auf dem Lande, in the country (à la campagne), des Landes, dem Lande ; in the pl. die Lande,collectively, and die Länder, the individual lands. Luther says, alle Lande sind deiner Ehre voll ; all countries (the whole earth) are full of thy glory! and Ahasveros war König über hundert und sieben und zwanzig Länder, he reigned over 127 provinces. See Worte and Wörter, sec. 48. The words in and are generally neuter, except der Sand, the sand, der Rand, the edge, der Strand, the Strand; der Tand, tinsel, toy, idletalk, and der Brand, the conflagration, which are masc. and die Hand, the hand; die Wand, the inner wall or partition, which are feminine.

146. wo die Citronen blühn, where lemons blossom: the Germans are at liberty to generalize their ideas either with or without the article. Had it not been for the rythmus, the poet might have said, wo Citronen blühn. blühen, reg. verb, to bloom, to blossom, to blow, conj. with haben. Every infinitive in en may omit the e, provided it creates no harshness; thus it cannot be omitted in lieben, leben, arbeiten, streiten, because the word would become so harsh that it could hardly be pronounced.

147. im dunkeln Laub, a contraction for in dem dunkeln Laub, in the dark foliage; dunkel, adj. dark, obscure, unintelligible. das Laub, es, neut. the foliage; whence die Laube, fem. the arbour.

148. die Gold Orangen glühn, the gold oranges (golden oranges) glow. glühn, reg. neut. verb, to glow, conj. with haben. It is sometimes used actively, to make to glow. das Eisen gliihen, to heat iron as it glows.

149. ein sanfter Wind, a soft wind; the adj. marking the gender.

150. sanft adj. soft, mild.

151. vom blauen Himmel, contraction for von dem blauen Himmel, from the blue heaven; blau, blue. der Himmel, des Himmels, pl. die Himmel, the heaven, the sky; anciently any hollow covering; hence, a canopy over a throne is called ein Thronhimmel, masc.; a bed's head, ein Betthim. mel. It also means the climate, when we say, die

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