Again a verbal noun, from the reg. sep. comp. verb aufmuntern, to encourage, to incite. Sec. 119.

311. zur Freude, a contraction for zu der Freude, to joy.

312. mit Grillen, with whims, with cares; die Grille, fem. a cricket, a whim, a strange fancy, a caprice, an anxious apprehension of imaginary evils. 313. Sich plagen, refl

. reg. verb, to plague, to torment one's self. Remember that the reflected verbs in German are conjugated, like the English reflected verb, with haben. Ich habe mich mit Grillen geplagt, I have tormented myself with cares.

314, So lang, in prose so lange, and generally followed by als, which however may be omitted, as here, even in prose: as long as. Lang, long in extent, and lange, long

. in point of time. But the comparative and superlative of both are länger, der längste, am längsten, the longest in point of time. See sec, 140.

315. So lang uns Lenz und Jugend blühn, so long as spring and youth bloom to us. Der Lenz, es, masc. the spring. The English “ Lent" is evidently derived from this word; and Lenz, in German, denotes more particularly the early part of spring, which generally precedes Easter. It is a very ancient word. Charles the Great called the month of March der Lenzmonath. The other names for spring, in German, which are less poetical, are das Frühjahr, neut. and der Frühling, masc.

The former is more common, the latter more elegant: both mean the early part of the year. die Jugend, fem. youth. die Blütentaye, sub. masc. pl. the days of bloom, the blooming days of youth. die Stirn or Stirne, fem, the forehead, the brow.

316. düster, adj. gloomy; it differs from dunkel, obscure, dark, because it always denotes the accessory

idea of sadness and fear: it is the opposite of cheerful, serene.

317. eine Falte, fem. a fold; die Stirn in Falten legen, to lay the forehead in folds, to wrinkle the brow.

318. das Pilgerleben, s, neut. the pilgrim's life, pilgrimage.

319. Sie bringt uns selbst den Kranz entgegen. Entgegenbringen is a sep. irr. comp. : ich bringe entgegen, ich brachte entgegen, ich habe entgegengebracht, to bring towards ope, to bring to a person.

der Kranz, es, die



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Kränze, masc. the garland, the crown of flowers or leaves, but not a metal crown; this is eine Krone, fem. Hence we often combine with the word Kranz the name of the flower or leaves of which it is made. We say ein Blumenkranz, a crown of flowers; ein Rosenkranz, a crown of roses ; ein Lorbeerkranz, a laurel crown.

220. der Scheidewege, es, pl. die Scheidewege, masc. the cross-road, the spot where several roads meet, where friends part to take different roads; a compound word, made of the irr. verb scheiden, to part, to separate, and der Weg, the road, sec. 75. It is the immense number of compound words which renders the acquisition of the German language so easy; the radical terms, the number of which is not considerable, being once treasured all the others are known, as it were, by intuition. Who can forget der Handschuh, the glove, a shoe for the hand; der Fingerhut, the thimble, a hat for the finger; der Blumenkranz, the garland, a crown of flowers; ein Grillenfänger, masc, a whimsical person, a catcher of whims, &c.?

321. Noch, adv. of time, still, yet. It acquires a greater degree of intensity from being placed, as here, at the head of the sentence, in which case,


other adverb, it throws the nominative of the verb behind. But it

may be placed indifferently after the verb whenever there is no particular stress laid upon it; only the negation nicht, contrary to the English and French way of speaking, must constantly stand last; noch nicht, not yet, (pas encore.) It also denotes again, or more, an addition as it were ; noch einmahl, once more; hiezu kommt noch, add to this ; noch ein wenig, a little more yet; das ist noch schlimmer, that is still worse ; nur noch einen Augenblick, but one moment longer. Sometimes it is the English“ ever so” and so much." Wenn es mir auch noch so theuer kommen sollte, though it should cost me ever so dear; wenn sie mich auch noch so sehr quälen, though you should importune me ever so much ; man sey noch so vorsichtig, let people be ever so provident. When noch is a conj. it is the English “nor,” after “neither,” which neither is expressed by weder. Sie ist weder jung noch schön, she is neither young nor handsome; weder das eine noch das andere, neither the one nor the other.

322. rinnen, irr, neut. verb, to flow gently ; ich rinne,

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ich rann, ich bin geronnen. When it is rapid flowing, or a rapid motion, we say rennen, to run. Ramler says :


“ Aus hoblen Weiden an den Bächen,
Rinnt Honig in die Fluth.”

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From hollow willows near the brooks honey flows gently into the water. rauschen, see sec. 251.

323. We had Wiesenflur, see. 123. Wiesenquelle, fem. is a fountain in a meadow. Die Quelle, sem. the fountain ; der Quell, masc. the spring, the source. die Laube, fem. the arbour, the bower, from das Laub, neut. foliage, leaves. der liebe Mond, sec. 267. scheinen, irr, neut verb, to appear, to shine, to seem; ich scheine, ich schien, ich habe geschienen. It is also used impersonally: es scheint, it seems,


appears, it looks; es scheint nur so, pears s0; es scheint regnen zu wollen, it looks as if it would rain. 324. der Saft, es, e, die Säfte, masc. juice, sap, or radical

. moisture of plants ; der Rebensaft, the juice of the grape ; eine Traube, fem. a bunch of grapes; Trauben lesen, to gather grapes; der Saft or das Blut der Trauben is a poetical expression for wine. Treu, adj. true, faithful.

325. noch tönt der Busch voll Nachtigallen dem Jüngling hohe Wonne zu, still the grove filled with nightingales sounds high delight to the young man.

zutönen is a reg sep. comp. verb, made of tönen, to sound, and zu, to, towards, which here denotes an approach. It is here the Latin ad. It is used actively for bringing delight to youth by sound. Ich töne zu, ich tönte zu, ich habe zugetönt : thus we say, Aus einer Ecke des grossen finstern Zimmers tönte mir eine schwache zitternde Musick zu, the sound of a weak trembling music met me from one corner of the large dark room. Klopstock says,


“ Zudonnern sollen dir Ungewitter die Antwort.”

Thunderstorms shall thunder the answer to you.

326. der Busch, es, e, die Büsche, masc. a thicket, a grove, a bush. bei einem auf den Busch klopfen, is a proverbial expression, which means “ to sound a person's disposition before a request is preferred." Ein Dornbusch,

masc. a thornbush ; ein Johannisbeerenbusch, a currantbush ; ein Stachelbeerenbusch, a gooseberry-bush.

327, der Jüngling, es, e, die Jünglinge, masc. the young man, a youth. The syllable ling, in German, is often a diminutive, and corresponds in some cases with the English ling, as in der Säugling, the suckling; der Findling, the foundling; der Mietling, the hireling; der Liebling, the darling. die Wonne, fem. delight, is a poetical word, expressive of a high degree of pleasure, endless and unmixed. Tiedge says :

“ So säng ich ihn, den Gott, der Leben

In alles haucht
Und jedes Leben
In Wonne taucht."

Thus would I sing him, the God, who breathes life into all, and dips each life into delight.

328. Wonne der Wonnen ists Menschen enfreuen, it is the delight of delights (the highest of all delights) to make men happy. in zerrisne Seelen, into torn souls, distracted souls. zerrissen is the past part, of the irreg. insep. comp. verb, zerreissen, to tear in pieces ; from reissen, to tear. ich zerreisse, ich zerriss, ich habe zerrissen. The inseparable particle zer generally denotes a total dissolution or dispersion of parts by means of the verb to which it is prefixed. It paints this dissolution even by its sound, which seems to imitate the noise of a violent dispersion of a whole into small parts. Burger says:

“ Wer bist du, Fürst, dass ungestraft

Zerrollen mich dein Wagenrad
Dein Ross zerschlagen darf ?”

Who art thou, prince, that the wheel of thy chariot may with impunity crush me, and thy horse beat me to pieces?

329. Ruh is a poetical license for Ruhe; die Ruhe, fem. quiet, rest, repose, tranquillity. er hut sich in Ruhe begeben, he retired from business ; die öffentliche Ruhe, public tranquillity. zur Ruhe, or in seine Ruhe eingehen, to go to the repose of the grave, to die. Ruhe also denotes the place where a person finds or at least seeks for repose. David says, Dies ist meine Ruhe ewiglich, hier

will ich wohnen. “ This is my rest for ever; here will I dwell.”—Psalms, cxxxii. 14. Hence the names of several summer palaces in Germany, as Wilhelmsruhe, Louisensruhe, Carlsruhe, which is now the capital of the Grand Duchy of Baden.

330. wunderschon, admirably beautiful, is a compound adjective, made of wunder, wonder, and schön, beautiful. We say in a similar way, wundergross, uncommonly great; wunderherrlich, uncommonly magnificent; wunderköstlich, uncommonly exquisite; wunderselten, uncommonly rare; wunderstark, uncommonly strong.

331. werth, adj. worthy, worth, dear, esteemed. When it denotes worth, with regard to price or value, it is construed with the accusative. der Ring ist einen Dukaten werth, the ring is worth a ducat; die Sache ist keinen Heller werth, the thing is not worth a farthing. But when it means worthy, it is generally construed with the geni. tive. er ist aller Ehren werth, he is deserving of all kind of honours; es ist nicht der Rede werth, it does not deserve to be mentioned ; es ist der Mühe werth, it is worth the while, it is worthy of the trouble it will require.

332. drum is a contraction for darum, conj. therefore, on that account.

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333. Schiller's little poem on the invincible Armada of Spain, which he wrote in the year 1786, will furnish us with some grammatical and philological remarks :

Sie kömmt, sie kömmt, des Mittags stolze Flotte

Das Weltmeer wimmert unter ibr;
Mit Kettenklang und einem neuen Gotte

Und tausend Donnern naht sie dir,
Ein schwimmend Heer furchtbarer Citadellen

(Der Ozean sah ihres gleichen nie)
Unüberwindlich nennt man sie,

Zieht sie einher auf den erschrock’nen Wellen;
Den stolzen Namen weiht

Der Schrecken, den sie um sich speit.
Mit majestätisch stillem Schritte
Trägt seine Last der zitternde Neptun;

Weltuntergang in ihrer Mitte,
Nabt sie heran und alle Stürme ruhn.

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