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THE LINGUIST.

A

COMPLETE COURSE OF INSTRUCTIONS

IN THE

German Language:

IN WHICH

ATTENTION IS PARTICULARLY DIRECTED TO PECULIARITIES

IN GRAMMATICAL FORMS AND CONSTRUCTION.

EXEMPLIFIED BY

SELECTIONS FROM THE BEST AUTHORS.

ained

By D. BOILEAU,
AUTHOR OF THE NATURE AND GENIUS OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE,”

KEY TO THE GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CONVERSATION," &c. &c.

NEW EDITION,

CAREFULLY REVISED AND CORRECTED.

LONDON:

LONGMAN, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS.

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THE LINGUIST,

INSTRUCTIONS

IN

The Gerinan Language.

1. The German language, in spite of the prejudices pre. vailing against it, is not by any means so difficult for an Englishman as the French. Its guttural sounds are not harsher than the Scotch word " Loch,” in Loch Lomond. The numeral acht, “ eighth,” is the harshest sound in the language; the German construction, however, requires great attention to be paid to the declension of nouns, articles, and pronouns; but the verbs are infinitely more easy than the French. Short pieces of light poetry, in which the sentences are less involved than in prose writings, will gradually familiarize the learner with these difficulties, We will begin with one of Gellert's Fables. Remember that the v is f, and the w simply v: von is fon—and was, vas; war, var; ei is the English 1, and ie the English EE.

DER KUCKUCK.

Ein Kuckuck sprach zu einem Staar,
Der aus der Stadt entflohen war;
Was, spricht man, fing er an zu schreien,
Was spricht man in der Stadt von unsern Melodeien?
Was spricht man von der Nachtigall ?
Die ganze Stadt lobt ihre Lieder.
Und von der Lerche ? rief er wieder.
Die halbe Stadt lobt ihrer Stimme Schall.
Und von der Amsel ? fuhr er fort.
Auch diese lobt man hier und dort.

B

Ich musz dich doch noch etwas fragen,
Was, rief er, spricht man denn von mir ?-
Das, sprach der Staar, das weisz ich nicht zu sagen,
Denn keine Seele redt von dir.
So will ich, fubr er fort, mich an den Undank rächen,
Und ewig von mir selber sprechen..

THE CUCKOO.

A Cuckoo spoke to a Starling which had fled from the town. What do they say, he began to scream, what do they say in the town of our melodies ? What say they of the Nightingale ? --The whole town praise her songs. And of the Lark? he cried again. Half the town praise the sound of her voice. And of the Blackbird ? he went on.Him too they praise here and there. I must, however, still ask you something. What, he called out, what do they then say of me?-That, said the Starling, I cannot tell; for not a soul speaks of you. Then will I, he went on, revenge myself of this ingratitude, and for ever speak of myself.

2. DER KUCKUCK.—Der is the article definite, singular, masculine ; birds whose names do not end in e being of the masculine gender, except die Nachtigall and die Amsel, mentioned in this fable, and die Drossel, the Thrush, die Wachtel, the Quail, and die Elster, the Magpie.

3. Ein Kuckuck sprach zu einem Staar. Ein is the article indefinite a, for both the masculine and neuter, and also the numeral one. It is therefore safer to remember German words with the article definite. The, der, masc. ; die, fem.; and das, neuter. Sprach, spoke, is the third person singular of the imperfect of the indicative of the irregular verb sprechen, to speak, to say; which has gesprochen in the participle past. When it signifies to converse, it is construed with mit, and the dative. Er sprach mit meinein Bruder; he spoke with my brother. Ich spreche mit Ihnen; I speak with you. Zu einem Staar, to a Starling—the dative masculine, with the indefinite article.

4. Der aus der Stadt.Der here means “ which.” The German articles definite are also pronouns demonstrative and relative, in some cases. Aus der Stadt, out of, from the town: it is the dative singular, feminine, on account of the preposition aus ; die Stadt has, in the plural, die Städte. 5. Entflohen war,

« which out of the town fled was,” ;" which had fled from the town." All pronouns relative, and several conjunctions, throw the verb to the end, and in compound tenses the auxiliary stands last. In a simple sentence, we should say, Er war entflohen, he had fled. Entfliehen is an inseparable compound verb, derived from the irregular verb fliehen, to flee, which makes ich Aoh in the imperfect, and geflohen in the participle past; but being joined to the inseparable particle, ent, the ge is dropped in the derivative. Like many neuter verbs, it makes its compound tenses with seyn, to be. Ich bin entflohen, I have fled; Er ist aus dem Gefängnisz entflohen, he has escaped from prison ; Was spricht man? What speak they? Was is the pronoun interrogative neuter, “what ?" Was sagen sie ? What do you say?-Was essen sie da? What are you eating ?-Spricht is the third person singular of the indicative present of sprechen. In common conversation we say, Was sagt man? Man is the indefinite general pronoun, people, they, one, It is spelt with a single n, whilst der Mann, the man, has two n's. Like the French on," it is always construed with the verb in the singular. Man sagt, it is said ; man glaubt, it is thought; man erwartet den König, people, or they, expect the king, or the king is expected.

6. fing er an, “ began he," imperf. of the separable compound verb, anfangen, “to begin," derived from the irregular fangen, “to catch.” In the simple tenses of separable compound verbs, the government of the verb and every concomitant circumstance, are placed between the verb and the particle. Ich fange alle meine Briefe I begin all my

letters three times." Sie fing ihre Arbeit gestern nachmittag an; “she began her work yesterday in the afternoon." Fangen sie doch an; s do but begin.”

7. zu schreien, “ to scream :" but infinitives in German are stated without this zu, as tanzen, “ to dance ;" reiten, “ to ride on horseback :" zu is used only in connexion with a preceding verb. Ich fange an zu tanzen; “I begin to dance." Schreien is irregular: it also means to raise one's voice.

8. in der Stadt ; in, with the dative, because there is no locomotion : but when it is the English “ into," and denotes a change of place, it governs the accusative. Ich

dreimal un;

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