souls, and that is the Creator and Redeemer of our spirits; by serving him and not a human legislator of souls, we come into spiritual freedom. We are not to be taken out of the world, but to be kept, and to keep ourselves, from its evil. In the using and developing of all the powers, and affections, and desires of our being-regulating, educating, purifying, strengthening them, and not repressing or killing them-we are to best serve and glorify him who made us in his image. True religion is the very germ in us of this purified nature. The nature we have, cleansed of its corruptions, is to be made like the human nature of Christ-the perfect man. The old Procureur du Roi, we believe, reasoned well. A man, even an apostle, has duties to his parents, his brethren, the State, and the world, which he cannot repudiate at will. The Saviour did not do so with the vast, spiritual responsibilities pressing upon him. He was seen at the market-place and the gatherings of the people. He went into their houses; he feasted with the publican and sinner; he loved to sit down with the Bethany household; he wept with the sisters of Lazarus; he yearned for human sympathy; he commended his mother to the care of the beloved disciple amid the sombre shadows of the cross; he was rooted in the common human heart; he was swayed by "the enthusiasm of humanity."

It may be replied by the Roman Catholic, that all men are not called upon to attain the same degree of spiritual perfection; that some are to aim at extraordinary holiness, and to be set apart, in order that they may be "apostles" to their fellow-men. But did Christ make such a distinction as this in the requirements of human piety? Is one Christian called upon to be holier than another Christian? And how did Christ himself train his apostles? He did not send them into the caves of Engaddi or tombs of Gadara, to spend ten years in spiritual exercises and contemplations, but he commanded them to go into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature; and he would be ever with them by his Spirit to help and guide. At the moment of the apostle Paul's conversion, he asked: "What wilt thou have me to do?" and his work was immediately assigned him. They were not to be enlightened by inspecting their own darkness, but by the

illumining influences of the Holy Spirit; they were not to be holy by efforts to rid themselves of their sins, but by following Christ, by doing his words, by walking in his spirit, by giving themselves up to the power of his heavenly love; by gazing upon his perfection until they grew into the same pure and heavenly image. They were to look out of themselves, not into themselves.

The different and almost opposite methods of training Roman Catholic and Protestant ministers, and the lives and influence, social, moral, and spiritual, of these, in the communities where they live and in the world, are fairly brought before our notice and judgment in a book like this, which sets before us one of the best examples, we presume, which the Romish system could offer us. The education of candidates for the ministry, in our Theological Seminaries, is to be compared with the same training in the Retreats and Noviciates of the Jesuit Fraternity; and we are not sure but that some most valuable hints, especially in the eminent attention bestowed upon spiritual culture as the chief thing, might not be gained in studying the Jesuit system. The life of a good Protestant minister, going among his people constantly and freely, mingling with the world of men, now and then, perhaps, drawn even into a political discussion, distinguished by no peculiar badge or dress from his fellow-citizens, living very much as other men do-this life is to be measured and weighed with that of the Jesuit Father or Priest, issuing periodically from his solitary cell to preach and administer the offices, to appear and disappear like an angel on a mount, rather than a man on the earth; and we are also to measure the actual results, the fruits of the two systems-of the life of Father de Ravignan, and, let us say, the life of Dr. Chalmers-for both were men of superior, though perhaps unequal power, and both, we believe, were influenced by the motive of doing the most good and of glorifying God. Let the two systems, then, be judged by their fruits. They are now fairly on trial in this country; for here, as elsewhere, the Jesuit is the educating and controlling mind in the Roman Catholic Church. Which of the two systems is most in consonance with our free institutions? Which of them most truly agrees with the spirit of

the present age of the world, and the advance of Christian truth? Which of them, above all, is most in harmony with the gospel of Christ ?

We have not attempted to investigate or discuss the history and position of Father de Ravignan, in reference to the different parties represented in the Roman Catholic Church at this most interesting crisis of its affairs. From all we learn, he was an Ultramontanist, in close union with his order as giving implicit submission to the decisions of his church, in upholding the infallible authority of the Holy Father, in accepting the Papal dogma of the Immaculate Conception, in holding strongly to the worship and mediatorship of the Virgin Mary, as the peculiar refuge and divinity of the Society of Jesus. We should be led to suppose from some of the opinions which he expresses, and the positions he assumed, that he had very little sympathy with Gallicanism, or the present Liberal Catholic party in France.

We would, however, heartily recommend this work, upon which we have briefly commented in no carping and uncharitable spirit, but with real interest and desire to come at the truth, to the reading of theological students and ministers of the gospel, as a book from which they may highly profit and learn much.


Discourses on various occasions by the Reverend Father HYACINTHE, late Superior of the Barefooted Carmelites of Paris, and Preacher of the Conferences of Notre Dame. Translated by LEONARD WOOLSEY BACON, Pastor of a Church of Christ, in Brooklyn, N. Y. With a Biographical Sketch. New York: G. P. Putnam & Son. 1869. 12mo. pp. xliv., 198.

Ir is not a very long time since the American public first heard of the grand sensation which a new preacher had begun to make in Paris. Afterwards the name of "Father Hyacinthe" was reported occasionally by returning travelers, or by Paris correspondents of the newspapers. He was the successor of Lacordaire and Ravignan in the pulpit of Notre Dame; and the fame of his eloquence was a new honor to the Church which boasts of Massillon and Bourdaloue, and to the language of Fenelon. Hardly anything more was known of him on this side of the Atlantic, till his speech before a Peace Society in Paris, on the 10th of July last, awakened throughout the civilized world a new interest in the man and in his destiny. The consequences of that speech have made him still more conspicuous; and when the telegraph announced his sudden embarkation for a visit to the United States, there could not but be a demand for some translated specimens of his preaching. In answer to that demand the volume before us has been given to the American public.

Unfortunately for the compiler and translator, Father Hyacinthe is not an author, but only an orator-not a writer of serinons to be read, but only a preacher. Reports of his discourses-sometimes revised by him-have been published in French journals, especially in the monthly Revue Correspondant, but we believe that no collection of the great preacher's sermons has been published in his native country. Consequently, the translator of this volume is under the

necessity of saying in his preface, "The only principle of selection and arrangement has been to take all the published works of Father Hyacinthe which I could find, in the order in which they came to haud, and bring them out in one volume, while waiting for an arrival from Paris for the materials of another."

This little volume, therefore contains,

1. A compendious but authentic biography of Father Hyacinthe (Rev. Charles Loyson), terminating with his letter to the General of his order, Sep. 20, 1869.

2. His Speech before the Peace League at Paris, July 10, 1869. 3. The Notre Dame Lectures (or "Conferences") Advent, 1867.

4. A Sermon preached to an American lady (a member of the Plymouth Church in Brooklyn, N. Y.) on the occasion of her public renunciation of Protestantism, and first communion in the Roman Catholic Church, July 14, 1868.

5. A Charity Sermon for the sufferers by the South American earthquake, preached at the church of La Madeleine, Paris, March 11, 1869.

6. An Appendix, entitled "Men and Parties in the Catholic Church in France," translated from an article by Dr. De Pressensé in the Paris "Revue Chretienne" for September and October, 1869;-an article in which "the foremost man of French Protestantism" illustrates the position and relations of the last great preacher in the pulpit of Notre Dame.

The compiler and translator of the work before us is not unknown to the readers of the New Englander. Remembering his relation to this journal, we do not write to commend his performance. His task of compilation was very simple, merely to collect such of Father Hyacinthe's discourses as were within his reach. Whether the work of translation is well done or ill done, let others judge. It is for us to say no more than that one who, having a competent knowledge of French, is accustomed to use the English language in public discourse, and especially in preaching, ought to be censured if his translation of such sermons as these is not spirited as well as faithful. Our concern in this Article is with the orator and not with the translator. We purpose nothing more than to show, chiefly from the work on our table, who and what the man is whose protest-though he refuses to be called a Protestant-rings like the strokes of the hammer with which Luther nailed those memorable theses to the door of the church in Wittenberg.

Those who were old enough to take notice of public events. at the time of the last vacancy in the succession from Numa

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