Ҿ˹˹ѧ
PDF
ePub

ich habe geschwiegen. It is hardly ever used actively; in this sense we have the compound verschweigen, to keep secret. But Luther uses schweigen, for “ to silence.” He translates 1 Epistle of Peter, iii. 10, “ For he that will love life and see good days, let him refrain his tongue,” wer leben will und gute Tuge sehen, der schweige seine Zunge.

684. Würden redend zeugen, would speaking testify, would give evidence. The participle active of reden, to speak, to discourse, is here used as it were adverbially, to denote that they are eloquent witnesses, not merely mute witnesses that afford probable evidence. Zeugen, reg. neut. verb, to witness, to testify, to bear witness, to give evidence. It is generally construed with the prep. von, (as here, with the adv. davon, diese Gewohnheit zeuget von der Unwissenheit dieser Leute, this custom affords an evidence of the ignorance of these people. Seine Handlungen zeugen von seinem bösen Herzen, his actions prove his bad heart. Zeugen, as an active verb, is to beget, to procreate; and as a sea term, to provide a ship with her tackle. 685. Doch es ist dahin, yet it is gone.

We had dahin in the sense of thither, sec. 156. But in compound verbs (as here, dahin seyn,) dahin often denotes destruction, perisbing, a going away. Thus we say, die Freuden dieses Lebens eilen gar zu schnell dahin, the joys of this life hasten much too rapidly away. In this sense the accent always is upon the syllable hin.

686. Glucklichere Zonen als, happier regions than; but we may also use dann instead of als, though the latter is more general. Zone, sub. fem. the zone. Die heisste Zone, the torrid zone ; die gemässigte Zone, the temperate zone ; die kalte Zone, the frozen zone.

The German name is, Erılstrich, Erdgürtel, or Himmelsgürtel; all three masc.

687. Leidlich, adj. and adv. tolerable, tolerably, indifferently well. Eine leidliche Hilze, a supportable heat. But in Upper Germany it often denotes ugly, abominable.

688. Entzogen, part. past of the irr. insep. act. comp. entziehen, to withhold, to withdraw, to deprive, to take away ; which follows the irregularities of ziehen, sec. 61. The insep. particle ent is generally the opposite of the particle be in verbs formed of nouns ; beladen, to load ; entladen, to unload : but here it means depriving, taking off, taking

P

away. It is also used reflectively; sich den Geschäften entziehen, to give up business, to withdraw one's-self from business. Die Kunst, sub. fem. art; die freien Künste, the liberal arts; knowledge, talent, skill, method, trade; a guild of tradesmen. Die schwarze Kunst, necromancy; the art of engraving in mezzotinto.

Kunst is also a machine, an engine. Eine Wasserkunst, a hydraulic machine. We say in common life, das ist keine Kunst, there is no art in this, it requires no particular abilities; any body may do this. Die Kunst geht nach Brod, the arts are not encouraged; artists must work for bread only.

689. Gewogen, adj. and adv. well affected, favourably inclined; affectionate Princes on writing to their subjects close their letter with wir sind euch in Gnaden gewogen, we are graciously inclined towards you. With equals it denotes attachment. Sie ist ihm sehr gewogen, she is very much attached to him.

690. Erwarmt, grows warm. Erwarmen, reg. neut. verb, to grow warm; ich erwarmte, ich bin erwarmt. But the active erwärmen, to warm, to render warm, takes the diphthong, and is conjugated with haben. Voss says :

“ Heim eilt jener zum Bilde zurück des trautesten Mägdleins Neigt sich über das Lager und küsst, und sie scheint zu erwarmen.”

The insep. particle er, sections 476 and 512, denotes in neut. verbs formed of adjectives, obtaining the quality expressed by the adjective. Erkranken, to grow ill; erblnssen, to grow pale, &c.; and in active verbs, imparting the quality expressed by the adjective, erwärmen, to warm ; erweischen, to soften, &c.

691. Sich gewöhnen, refl. verb, to accustom one's-self, to get familiarized. Gewöhnen, reg. act. verb, to accustom, to dress, train. But the neuter verb is without the diphthong, just as we had erwarmen and erwärmen. Gewohnen, to become accustomed. It is construed with the prep. an, with the accusative, and in the higher styles of writing with the genitive. We have a proverb, jung gewohnt alt gethan, which means, we do in old age what we have been accustomed to do in our youth. But this verb is chiefly employed in the participle, either with seynIch bin gewohnt früh aufzustehn, I am in the habit of rising early; or with werden. Ich funge an es gewohnt zu werden, I begin to get accustomed to it.

692. Der Raub, es, e, sub. masc. robbery, spoil, prey, rapine, plunder. This word denoted anciently a very great rapidity ; we still say, auf den Ruub essen, to take a nieal in great haste. Etwas auf den Raub thun, to do something in a great hurry. Luther translates Joshua, viii. 27, The cattle and the spoil of that city Israel took for a prey unto themselves,” das Vieh und den Raub der Stadt iheilete Israel aus unter sich. The difference between Raub and Beute, fem. booty, is this : “Raub ist was mit unrechtmässiger Gewalt genommen wird, Beute auch mit rechtmässiger, wenigstens mit einer solchen die nicht für unrechtmässig gehalten wird.”

693. Grünen, reg. neut. verb, to grow green, verdant; fig. to thrive, to prosper. Ich wünsche Sie mögen grünen und blühen, I wish you to thrive and flourish.

694. Die Schläfe, sub. masc. pl. the temples, those parts of the human face which are between the ear and the eye. The singular Schlaf, which generally denotes sleep, is seldom used in this sense. Die Rebe, sub. fem. a twig or sprig of a vine ; also the vine itself which bears grapes. Das Rebenlaub, neut. vine leaves. Der Rebensaft, masc. the juice of grapes, fig. wine.

695. Tauschen, reg. act. and neut. verb, to barter, to exchange; to give or to take in exchange. Ich tauschte nicht mit ihm, I would not exchange situations with him ; I should not like to be in his place. But we also place the prep, mit before the object that is exchanged. Wir haben mit den Pferden getauscht, we have exchanged horses. We may say, ein Gelehrler tauscht mit einem Buche das er entbehren kann, (which be can do without) gegen ein anderes das ihm nöthiger ist, mit einem andern Gelehrten.

696. Anlanden, reg. sep. comp. neut. verb, to arrive, to draw near the shore, to land: ich lande an, ich landete an, ich bin angelandet. Actively it is anländen, and conj. with haben. An, in several verbs, is the Latin ad, and marks an approach. Anfahren, to drive up with a carriage; An reiten, to ride up on horseback.

697. Herrschen, reg. neut. verb, to rule, to reign, to sway, to subdue, fig. to prevail, to be in fashion. We say:

"Mit Bitten herrscht die Frau und mit Befehl der Mann
Die Eine, wenn sie will; der Andere, wenn er kann.”

698. Spiegeln, from der Spiegel, sub, masc. the mirror, a reg. neut. verb, is to shine, to sparkle, to be bright. But sich spiegeln, refl. verb, to look into a looking-glass; sich im Wasser spiegeln, to behold one's face in a spring of clear water; die Sonne spiegelt sich, the sun is reflected; der Mond spiegelt sich.

699. An der Engelspforten, at the gates of the Castle of St. Angelo; eine Pforte, sub. fem. a gate, a door; eine Ehrenpforte, a triumphal arch; die Ottomanische Pforte, or simply die Pforte, the Ottoman Porte.

700. Ihn umgiebt der Schönheit Glanzgewimmel, the splendid throng of beauty surrounds him, he is surrounded by a crowd of splendid and beautiful objects. Umgeben, insep. irr. comp. act. verb, to surround, to environ, to encompass. The prep. um, about, round about, is inseparable whenever it answers the Latin circum, as here: umgeben is exactly the Latin circumdare. The verb itself, in those cases, governs the accusative in reference to the preposition. Einen Garten mit einem Graben umgeben, to surround a garden with a ditch. A poet says :

“ Ein dichter Hain, er war das Ebenbild
Von jenem den ich kindlich oft durchwallt,
Umgab mich.”

701. Die Sonne und der Mond sind bisweilen mit einen hellen Kreise umgeben den man ihren Hof (their court) nennt.

702. Die Vergangenheit, sub. fem. whatever is past, what is gone by, but chiefly the time that is past, the past.

703. Streuen, reg. act. verb, to strew, to spread, to scatter. Als Christus in Jerusalem einzog hieben etliche Zuschauer Zweige von den Bäumen und streueten sie auf

den Weg.

704. We select for our next remarks an Ode of Klopstock to his friend Giseke, who left the University of Leipzig before him, in 1747 :

Geh! ich reisse mich los, obgleich die männliche Tugend

Nicht die Thräne verbeut,
Geh! ich weine nicht, Freund. Ich müsste mein Leben durch-

Weint' ich dir, Giseke, nach.
Denn so werden sie alle dabin gebn, jeder den andern

Traurend verlassen, und fliehn.
Also trennet der Tod gewählte Gatten ! der Mann kam

Seufzend im Ozean um.
Sie am Gestad, wo von Todtengeripp, und Scheiter, und Meersand

Stürme das Grab ibr erhöhn.
So liegt Miltons Gebein von Homers Gebeinen gesondert;

In der Zypresse verweht
Ihre Klag'an dem Grabe des Einen und kommt nicht hinüber

Nach des anderen Gruft.
So schrieb unser aller Verhängniss auf eherne Tafeln

DER im Himmel und schwieg.
Was der Hocherhabene schrieb, verehr' ich im Staube,

Weine gen Himmel nicht auf.
Geh, mein Theurer! Es letzen vielleicht sich unsere Freunde

Auch ohne Thränen mit dir;
Wenn nicht Thränen die Seele vergiesst, unweinbar dem Fremdling

Sanftes edles Gefühls.
Eile zu Hagedorn hin, und hast du genug ibn umarmet,

Ist die erste Begier
Euch zu sehen, gestillt, sind alle Thränen der Freude

Weggelächelt entflohn:
Giseke, sag' ihm alsdann, nach drei genossenen Tagen,

Dass ich ihn liebe wie du.

Go! I'll snatch myself from you, although manly virtue does not forbid a tear. Go! I weep not, my friend. I should be obliged to weep all the days of my life, if I wept for your loss, Gieske, for they all will depart like you, and leave their friends in sorrow behind. Thus does death part a new married couple; the husband perished sighing in the ocean; the wife on the shore, where the storms raise her a grave of carcasses, wrecks, and sea-sand. Thus lie Milton's remains far from Homer's bones; their lamentations vanish in the cypress near the grave of one, and do not pass over to the tomb of the other. Thus did HE in heaven write our destiny, the destiny of us all on brass tablets, and keep it to himself. Prostrate in the dust I adore what the Most High wrote, and expostulate not with heaven. Go, my dear friend! perhaps our friends will also bid you a last farewell without tears, unless they are inward tears of the heart, unperceived by him who is a stranger to soft and noble feeling. Hasten to Hagedorn, and when you have sufficiently enjoyed his embrace, when the first longing to see each other is satiated, when the tears of joy have disappeared in your smiles, then, Giseke, tell him at the end of three days, that I love him as you do.

705. Ich reisse mich los, I snatch myself away from

« ͹˹Թõ
 »