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with, or a lower degree of the adjective from which they are derived. We call schwärzlich, blackish; bläulich, bluish, &c. what is like black or blue ; and kältlich, laulich, härtlich, &c. what is somewhat cold, lukewarm, or hot.

787. Erblich (which is spelt exactly like erblich, adj. hereditary, is divided thus, er-blich, whilst hereditary is erb-lich, is the impf. of the irr. insep. neut. comp. erbleichen, to grow pale; fig. to die. Ich erbleiche, ich erblich, ich bin erblichen, sec. 690.

788. Verschied, impf. of the irr. insep. neut. comp. verscheiden, to die; ich verscheide, ich verschied, ich bin verschieden. It is made of ver, sections 36, 493, 722, and scheiden, sec. 465.

789. Klopstock's Messiah unquestionably owes its birth to Milton's Paradise Lost. We select that part of the third book or canto where Satan inspires Judas with the idea of betraying Jesus.

Judas Ischariot war, nicht weit von dem stillen Lebbäus
Der sein Verwandter und Freund war, voll Unruh eingeschlafen.
Aber Satan, der seitwärts in einer verborgenen Höhle
Alles, was die Engel von ihren Jüngern erzbälten,
Hatte gehört, brach zürnend hervor, und liess, voll Gedanken
Zu dem Verderben entflammt, sich über Ischariot nieder.
Also nabet die Pest in mitternächtlicher Stunde
Schluminernden Städten. Es liegt auf ihren verbreiteten Flügeln
An den Mauern der Tod und haucht verderbende Dünste.
Jetzo liegen die Städte noch ruhig ; bei nächtlicher Lampe
Wacht noch der Weise; noch unterreden sich edlere Freunde
Bei unentheiligtem Wein, in dem Schatten duftender Lauben,
Von der Seele, der Freundschaft, und ihrer unsterblichen Dauer!
Aber bald wird der furchtbare Tod sich am Tage des Jammers
Ueber sie breiten, am Tage der Qual und des sterbenden Winselns,
Wenn mit gerungenen Händen die Braut um den Bräutigam wehklagt,
Wenn, nun, aller Kinder beraubt, die verzweifelnde Mutter
Wüthend dem Tag' an dem sie gebar, und geboren ward, fluchte;
Wenn mit tiefem verfallneren Auge die Todtengräber
Durch die Leichname wandeln, bis hoch aus der Donnerwolke
Mit tiefsinniger Stirn der Todesengel herabsteigt,
Weit umberschaut, alles still, und einsam und öde
Sieht, und auf den Gräbern in ernsten Betrachtungen stehn bleibt.
So kam über Iscbariot Satan zum naben Verderben,
Goss dann einen verführenden Traum in sein offnes Gehirne.
Schnell empört'er das klopfende Herz zu Begierden der Bosheit;

Şenkte zuerst empfunde Gedanken, voll Feuer, stürmend,
Ihm in die Seele. So wie sich der Donner in schweflichte Berge
Himmelab stürzt, sie entzündet, dann neue Donner versammelt,
Dann durch die Tiefen, nunmehr ein ganzes Wetter, sich fortwälzt.
Denn der Seraphim hohes Geheimniss, den Seelen der Menschen
Edle Gedanken, der Ewigkeit würdige grosse Gedanken
Einzugeben, war Satan, zu seiner grössern Verdamniss
Noch bekannt. Zwar kam aus treuer sorgsamer Abndung
Seraph Itburiel wieder zurück, bei dem Jünger zu bleiben;
Aber da er entdeckte, wie über Ischariot Satan
Sicb verbreitete, bebt'er und stand, und sahe zu Gott auf,
Und entschloss sich, vom Schlaf Ischariot aufzuwecken.
Dreimal schwebt er auf Flügeln des Sturms durch brausende Cedern
Ueber sein Angesicht hin, ging dreimal mit mächtigem Schritte
Bei dem Jünger vorbei, dass des Bergs Haupt unter ihm bebte.
Aber Ischariot blieb, mit kalter erblassender Wange,
Wie in tödlichem Schlummer.

Judas Iscariot, under the agitation of bis mind, bad fallen asleep not far from the gentle Lebbeus, who was his relation and his friend. But Satan, who in a retired hidden cave had overbeard all that the angels bad said of the disciples, rusbed out frantic, and heated with thoughts big with destruction, descended upon Judas. Thus does Pestilence, in the midnight hour, approach slumbering cities. On her wings sits Death, exhaling destructive vapours. The cities are still silent ; the sage is still watching by his night-lamp; some generous friends are still conversing over unprofaned wine in the shade of fragrant bowers, about the soul, about friendship, and their immortal duration. But soon does terrific death spread over them on the day of wailing, on the day of anguish and agonizing groans, when the bride wringing her hands bemoans her bridegroom; when, bereft of all her children, the distracted motber execrates in her rage the day on which she gave them birth, and on which she was born ; when the grave-diggers, with a hollow deep sunk eye, wander amidst dead bodies, until the angel of death, alighting with knitted brow from a high thunder-cloud, looks around to a great distance, and beholding all silent, solitary, and desert, rests upon the tombs absorbed in solemn contemplation. Thus came Satan over Iscariot for his approaching destruction, and pouring a deceiving dream into his open brain, he soon excited his palpitating beart to wicked desires ; and breathed into his soul thoughts of his own, fierce and stormy; like the thunder, which, falling from heaven on sulphureous clouds, sets them on fire, then collects new thunders, and now rolls through the vallies a complete hurricane. For the sublime secret of the seraphs to inspire the souls of men with noble thoughts, with solemn contemplations worthy of eternity, was still known to Satan for his greater condemnation. Faithful anxious care brought, it is true, the seraph Ithuriel back again to the Disciple to stay with him; but when he perceived how Satan hung over Judas, be trembled and stopped, and looking up to the Almighty he determined to awake Iscariot from his sleep. Thrice be hovered the wings of the storm through rattling cedars over his face; thrice he passed by the Disciple with such mighty

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steps, that the top of the mountain shook under him ; but Iscariot, with a cold and pale cheek, continued as in the sleep of death.

790. Sein Verwandter, his relation ; ein Verwandter, subs. masc.

a kinsman, a relation ; ein Religionsverwandter, one who professes the same religion ; ein Rathsverwandter, a member of a magistracy, of a corporation. The adjective is verwandt, related, allied by consanguinity. Die Verwandtschaft, subs. fem. kindred, consanguinity. A female relation is eine Verwandte, and not as they say in some parts of Germany, eine Verwandtin. All these terms are sometimes strengthened by the additional syllable an, ein Anverwandter, which sounds more solemnly.

791. War eingeschlafen, had fallen asleep; einschlafen, sep. irr. comp. neut. verb, to fall asleep. Ich schlafe ein, ich schlief ein, ich bin eingeschlafen. The sep. particle ein here denotes the change into a different situation, from waking to sleep. Entschlafen is to cease being awake, to remove entirely from the situation of being awake, sec, 688 and 755. Hence entschlafen is to die. Die todten sind den Sorgen und Leiden des Lebens entschlafen, viz. durch den Todesschlaf entgangen.

792. Aber, but, sec. 126, is employed as a substantive.

793. Seitwärts, adv. sideways, aside, sidewards. It is composed of die Seite, subs. fem. the side, and the prep, wärts, which marks the relation of objects to others at a distance, and is the same as the English wards in “ forwards, towards, upwards." It denotes direction towards, and is generally added to the name of the object which is to be approached, as in Lundwärts, Seewürts, Thalwärts, Ostwarts, Westwärts, &c. or tacked to a particle, as in vorwärts, rückwärts, forwards, backwards. “Wärts is derived from the obsolete wahren, to see, traces of which may be found in the German bewahren, wahrnehmen, gewahr werden ; and in the English “ aware, unawares, a warder.”

794. Hatte gehört is a poetical license for gehört hatte ; the

pron. rel. der, like all pron. rel. throws the verb to the end of the sentence, and in comp. tenses, the auxiliary stands last: Der alles gehört hatte.

795. Brach zürnend hervor, rushed angrily forwards ; hervorbrechen, sep. irr. neut. comp. to break forth, to break through, to shoot forth, to appear suddenly from out

of a place. Ich breche hervor, ich brach hervor ; ich bin hervorgebrochen, sec. 258.

796. Und liess . . . . . . sich über Ischariot nieder, and let himself down over Iscariot. Sich niederlassen, sec. 480.

797, Haucht verderbende Dünste, exhales destructive vapours. Hauchen, reg. act. and neut. verb, to breathe, to exhale ; ein Haurh, subs. masc. in grammar, an aspiration. Der letzte Hauch, the last gasp. Die Blumen hauchen die süssesten Wohlgerüche, flowers emit the sweetest fragrance. Alles haucht Freude, every thing breathes joy. Hauchen differs from Blasen, to blow, by a lower degree of intensity. Verderben, irr. neut. verb, to spoil, to be spoiled, ruined: ich verderbe, ich verdarb, ich bin verdorben. But when it is used actively, as here, verderbend, destroying, it is regular. Luther translates Psalm 1xxx. 13, and the wild beast of the field doth devour it,” Die wilden Thiere haben deinen Weinstock verderbt. We say, einen das Spiel verderben, to frustrate one's design; den Spass verderben, to spoil the joke. In the Bible it frequently denotes damnation,

798. Bei unentheiligtem Wein, over unprofaned wine, viz. over wine that is not profaned by being used immoderately, that is, not abused. Entheiligen, insep. reg. act. comp. to unhallow, to profane, to abuse, to render unholy; part. past, entheiliget, with the additional un, sec. 202.

799. Sich breiten, refl. verb, to extend one's-self. Breiten, reg. act. to extend, to spread; in some parts of Germany they actually say spreiten. Den Mist auf dem Felde breiten, to spread dung upon a field. Verbreiten, towards the end, is formed of the insep. particle ver, adv. breit, and has the same signification of extending, spreading, rendering broad, as the ver bere denotes : imparting the quality expressed by the adj. with the additional idea of abroad, about. Hence it also means to diffuse: der Geruch hat sich in dem ganzen Zimmer verbreitet, the smell has spread all over the room.

Ein Gerücht verbreiten, to spread a report. 800. Winseln, reg. neut. verb, to groan, to whine, to wail: der Hund winselt, the dog whines ; eine winselnde Stimme, a plaintive voice. Das Winseln, sub. neut. groaning, is the verbal substantive; but we have also das Gewinsel, sub. neut. the wailing, groaning,

801. Mit gerungenen Händen, with wrung hands, instead

sec. 610.

of wringing her hands ; ringen, to wring, sec. 239, and

It is an irr. act. and neut. verb: ich ringe, ich rang, ich habe gerungen.

802. Die Braut, sub. fem. sec. 588. Der Bräutigam, sub. masc. the bridegroom, the bethrothed man; the new husband. We call a man a bridegroom as soon as he has the consent of his bride, and of her parents or guardians, but more particularly on the wedding-day, when he leads his bride home. The old song says:

“ Als der Grossvater die Grossmutter nahm,
Da war der Grossvater ein Bräutigamn.”

803. Wehklagen, reg. neut. verb, to bemoan, to lament, to cry woe; from Weh, woe, and Klagen, to complain. It is generally construed with über : über etwas wehklagen, to bemoan something ; über einen wehklagen, to mouru over a person.

The poet uses here um, which insinuates that the bride is mourning for the sake of the bridegrom, whom she is going to lose. Wenn die Braut um den Bräutigum wehklugt; über would insinuate that he died before her, whilst they are dying together. The interjection, Weh! woe! as the expression of pain, is, in the Greek language, oval! in the Latin, vae! and in the French, ouais! But in the latter language it is become familiar, and rather low, and is expressive only of surprise.

804. Beraubt, part. past of the insep. comp. act. berauben, to bereave, to deprive, to rob. In the latter sense it governs the accusative of the person: Man hat meinen Bruder beraubt, they have robbed my brother. In the sense of depriving it governs the genitive, as here: Aller Kinder beraubt, bereft of all her children. Er ist seines Vermögens beraubt worden, he has been deprived of his fortune.

805. Mit tiefem verfallneren Auge, with a deep, still more sunk eye. Verfallner is actually the comparative of verfallen, part. past of the insep. comp. verfallen, to decay, to sink. But our poets frequently employ the comparative merely to give a greater intensity to the expression.

806. Oede, adj. desert, uninhabited, desolate.

807. Zuerst empfundene Gedanken, thoughts which he had first felt, his own thoughts. Empfunden is the part,

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