Ҿ˹˹ѧ
PDF
ePub

instead of, if I had, if I were: and as the conditional tense requires two words, ich würde sehen, I should see, the imperfect of the subjunctive is often preferred for conciseness sake. Sähe ich is here employed for würde ich sehen. It is the imperfect subjunctive of the irregular active, sehen, to see, which has nearly the same irregularities as the English, to see. In the present indicative, ich sehe, du siehst, er sieht, 1 see, &c. the plural is regular, the imperfect indicative ich sah, I saw; and in the subjunctive, with the diphthong, ich sähe, I might see. The participle past is gesehen, seen. Ich habe sie gestern in der Kirche gesehn,

saw you yesterday at church.

76. das Glück, es, e, neuter, no plural, luck, good fortune, happiness; hence glücklich, lucky, happy, fortunate. Beglücken, to make happy. Unglück, neut. misfortune.

77. der Weg, es, e, die Wege, m. the way, the road, the path. The adv. weg, away, is construed as in English. Weg mit ihm! away with him ! The highway, die Landstrasse. Würd'ich stoltz mich blähn, should I proudly myself puff up, I should proudly be puffed up. Sich blähn is a reflected verb, to puff one's self. The reflected verbs in German follow the English rule; they make their compound tenses with the verb “ to have ;" the only difference is, that they put the pron. pers. acc. governo ment, between the auxiliary and the principal verb. Ich habe mich gebläht, I have myself puffed, instead of, I have puffed myself

. Ich würde mich blähn, I should puff myself. You have here, würde ich, the nom. behind the verb, on account of the words säh’ich Glück auf meinem Wege, placed adverbially at the head of the sentence, and modifying the assertion by the condition “if I saw.” Stoltz, or stolz, as modern writers spell it, adj. and adv. proud, proudly. Der Stolz, es, e, m. no plural, pride. In common life we say, Sich vor Stolz blähn, to puff one's-self up out of pride, from pride.

78. Und leichtsinnig oder träge meinen Zweck versehn, and lightly or indolently my aim miss,-and through levity or indolence miss my aim. Leichtsinnig, full of levity, and träge, indolent, are two adj. used adverbially. Versehn, to miss, from sehn, to see; and the inseparable particle ver, which very often denotes "amiss,” particularly with reflected verbs: Ich habe mich verschrieben, I made a

as

mistake in writing ; ich habe mich versehen, I made a mistake, I saw wrong:

Versehn refers to würde ich, with which it is the conditional, I should miss. Der Zweck, es, e, pl. e, the aim, object, end in view. All the words in eck are masculine.

79. Säh' ich Unglück, should I see misfortune, if I saw misfortune. Das Unglück, es, e, n, no pl. like the primitive Glück. Würd ich zittern, I should tremble. Zittern, r. v. n. to tremble. We say, die Hand zittert ihm, the hand trembles to him ; like the French, “la main lui tremble,or, er zittert mit der Hand, he trembles with the hand, for “ his hand trembles;" and like the English, er zittert vor Furcht, he trembles for fear.

80. Und die küntftge Zeit, and the future time, the time to come. Künftge is a poetical contraction for Künftige, fem. of künftig, with the article definite. In common conversation we say, ins künftge, instead of ins künftige, for the future; Künftige Woche, next week; Künftiges Jahr, next year; Künftigen Montag, next Monday.

81. Würde mir das Glück verbittern, would me the luck, imbitter, would imbitter the good fortune. Verbittern, r, insep. c. a. v. from the adj. bitter, hitter, and the insep. particle ver, which whenever it is affixed to active verbs formed of adjectives, denotes imparting the quality expressed by the adj.: as verbittern, to make bitter; verjüngen, to make young; verdünnen, to make thin; veredeln, to ennoble.

82. Das mich jetzt erfreut, which me at present gladdens, which gladdens me at present. Das is the art. def. neuter, used as pron. relative, which throws the verb to the end. If it were the pronoun demonstrative, that, you

would say, das erfreut mich, that gladdens me, that rejoices me. Jetzt or jetzo, itzo, jilzo, itzt, adv. at present.

83. erfreut, from erfreuen, to gladden, to rejoice, an insep. comp. reg. act. verb, made of freuen, to rejoice, and the 'inseparable particle er, which here strengthens the idea expressed by the primitive verb.

84. Was ich habe, what I have; will ich nützen, will I use, I will enjoy. Again the nom. behind, on account of the gov. being before. In the logical order you would say, ich will nützen was ich habe. Der Nutzen, the utility; nützlich, useful,

go out with

85. fernen Gram nicht scheun, distant harm not fear, no fear any

distant misfortune. fernen, acc. m. of the adj.fern, distant, to agree with der Gram, es, harm, grief, sorrow, misfortune, which, like all the words in am, is m.: Der Gram hat seine Stirn gefurcht, grief has wrinkled his brow. Hence the reflected verb sich grämen, to grieve : Worüber grämen sie Sich? what are you grieving for? Scheun, contracted for scheuen, r. v. a to shun, to avoid, to fear. The adj. is scheu, shy, afraid ; Mein Pferd ist scheu, my horse is shy.

86. und soll ich ein Glück besitzen, and shall I a luck possess, and if I am to have a good fortune. Sollen here is « to be to :" Ich soll mit meiner Mutter ausgehen, I am to

my

mother. 87. meines Glücks mich freun, of my luck myself rejoice ; rejoice in my luck, in my good fortune. The verb will ich refers to the three infinitives, nützen, scheun, and freun; the latter is a contraction of freuen, to rejoice, the primitive of erfreuen, to gladden. As a reflected regular verb, sich freuen, it is like the French, se réjouir, “ to rejoice one's-self,” and construed in the genitive," se réjouir d'une chose,sich einer Sache freuen, whilst in English it is “to rejoice in.” But we also say, Sich über etwas freuen, to rejoice over something. Freuen sie sich, is the polite imperative in the third person plural,“ rejoice !" But when we address an aggregate number of persons, we speak in the real second person plural, Freut euch. The well-known song, “ Life let us cherish,” begins in the original German, Freut euch des Lebens.

88. The following German tale is again one of C. F. Weisse's :

DER REISENDE UND SEIN WEGWEISER,

Ein Reisender kam einst an einen Flusz
Den, wollt'er nicht der Reise Zweck verlieren,
Muszter durchaus mit seinem Rosz passiren;

Doch dazu feblt es ihin am muthigen Entschlusz.
Wer, rief er, kann dem Wasser trauen
Das keine Balken hat? Kann man nicht Brücken bauen ?
O dasz ich niemand hier zu Rathe ziehen kann
Ob nichts zu fürchten ist! Zum Glücke kam ein Mann,
Freund, rief er ihm, würd' Er Bedenken tragen

Sich hier in diesen Strom zu wagen ?
“ Kein's, hätt'ich vollends so ein Thier
Als wie der Herr, noch unter mir
So ritt ich, glaub'ich, durch die Hölle.”
Es scheint mir gleichwohl manche Stelle
Nicht sogar flach und seicht.
“ Es könnte seyn,” antwortete der Schalk,“ vielleicht,
Vielleicht auch nicht.” Nun wohl denn, eine Bitte
Und Trinkgeld, wenn Er erst vor mir hinüber ritte,
Und zeigte mir den sichern Pfad.
Sehr gern, mein Herr, dazu wird Rath.”

Der Reisende steigt schnell von seinem Gaul herab,
Der andere hinauf, setzt dann in vollem Trab
Denn Strom hindurch and weiter.
Was Teufel! Herr! wohin? ruft ihm der erste Reuter
Voll Schrecken nach: Gemach, mein Freund, gemach!
Allein es hilft kein Schreien, Drohn und Ach;
Und obne sich an sein Geschrei zu kehren,
Iagt er noch mehr, hört oder will nicht hören.
Doch nein, itzt lenkt er um, und kömmt, o welches Glück!
Ganz langsam an den Strand zurück.
Er Schalk! ruft jener: mir so viele Angst zu machen!
Nun her mein Pferd! Dann will ich seinen Spasz belachen.
“ Ein Spasz?" versetzt der Dieb : “Nein! mir behagt diesz Pferd;
Doch scheint es mir zum Dank noch einer Lehre werth :
“ Bei einem wichtigen Geschäfte
Versuch 'Er künftig fein erst seine eignen Kräfte,
Bevor Er fremde borgt, and trau 'Er dem ja nicht
Der zu gefällig dient, und was man will

verspricht. Hab'ich ein eignes Pferd, und will ein Ziel erjagen Warum soll seinen Hals für mich ein Andrer

?"

[ocr errors]

wagen

THE TRAVELLER AND HIS GUIDE.

A Traveller once came to a river, which, if he would not lose the object of his journey, he must absolutely cross with his horse : but he wanted a courageous resolution for it. Who, exclaimed he, can trust the water which has no rafters ? Can they not build bridges? Oh! that I cannot consult any one here whether there be any danger! (any thing to fear.) Fortunately there came a man. My friend, called he to bim, would you feel any hesitation to venture into this stream ?-"None; particularly if I had an animal such as you have, Sir, under me, I would, I think, ride through hell.” Yet there is many a place which does not appear so very fat and shallow to me.

That may be, (answered the wag,) and may be not.” Well, then, I beg you, and I'll give you drink money, to ride first across, and show me a safe road.—“Very willingly, Sir, that may be accomplished.” The Traveller quickly dismounts from his horse, the other gets upon it, and then rides full trot through the river, and farther on. “What the deuce, Sir! where are you for ?" calls the terrified first horseman after him: “gently, my friend, gently." But neither cries, por threatenings, 'nor sighs, would avail; and without mind

ing his vociferations he gallops still faster, hears not, or will not bear. But now he turns about, and how fortunate ! be slowly returns to the strand. “What a wag you are!" exclaimed the other," to cause me so much uneasiness ! give me my horse, afterwards I will laugh at your joke."-"A joke ? replies the Thief; “no, this horse suits De ; yet out of gratitude I think it entitles you to an additional less

Whenever you are engaged in an important business, try first, in future, your own powers before you borrow those of others, and do not, by any means, trust him who is too complacently servile, and promises whatever you wish. When I have a horse of my own, and wish to reach a certain goal, why is another to venture his neck for

son,

me ?"

89. Der Reisende und sein Wegweiser, the traveller and his guide ; the regular verb reisen, to travel, participle active reisend, with the definite der Reisende, with the indefinite article, ein Reisender, a traveller. You recollect why the r is added with the indefinite ein. der Wegweiser is one of those compound words to which we have already directed your attention. It is made of der weg, the way, the road, and der Weiser, the indicator, from weisen, to show. Can there be any word more expressive for a guide ?

90. Ein Reisender kam einst an einen Flusz, a traveller came once to a river ; kam, imp. of kommen ; an, at, to; der Flusz, m. the river ; des Flusses, dem Flusse, in the pl. with the diphthong, die Flüsse. Most words in usz are m. except die Nusz, the nut, and Musz, n. in the sense of necessity : es ist ein Musz, it must be done.

91. Den, acc. masc. sing. of the article definite, der, used here as a pronoun demonstrative, this, or relative which; wollter nicht der Reise Zweck verlieren, the nom. after the verb, to mark a contingent idea; in prose it would be, wenn er nicht den Zueck der Reise verlieren wollte, if he would not lose the object of his journey; der Reise Zweck, the journey's object. Verlieren, to lose, is an irregular active verb ; it has ich verliere, ich verlor, ich habe verloren; hence the military term," the forlorn hope," die verlorne Schildwache.

92. Muszt er durchaus mit sienem Rosa passiren, must he absolutely with his horse pass; er muszte, he must, he was obliged, from the auxiliary, müssen, to be obliged, which ought to be learnt in the Grammar; durchaus, adv. entirely, throughout, absolutely; er soll durchaus nichs hingehen, he is absolutely not to go thither; das Rosz,

« ͹˹Թõ
 »