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es, e, the horse, is a more poetical expression than the common word das Pferd. As a sign of an Inn, we say im weissen Rosse, at the White Horse. Passiren is one of those words taken from the French which are so often met with in the writers who preceded the present brilliant period of German literature: it means to pass over.

93. Doch dazu fehlt'es ihm am muthigen Entschlusz, yet thereto (for this) it failed to him in courageous resolve ; yet he wanted the courage necessary for it; fehlen, reg: verb neut. to fail, to be wanting, deficient, imperf. es fehlt mir an allem, I am in want of every thing ; muthig, adj. and adv. brave, courageous, from der Muth, courage ; der Entschlusz, masc. the resolution, determination to act, from the insep. comp. refl. irr. sich entschliessen, to resolve.

94. Wer, rief er, kann dem Wasser trauen, who, called he, can to the water trust ? das Wasser. Observe that several English words spelt with a t in the middle have a double s in German, as Water," Wasser ; 6 to hate,” hossen ; “to bite," beissen. trauen, verb neut. to trust, to confide: ich kann, ihm nicht trauen, I cannot trust him actively to join in wedlock. Der Prediger hat sie heute früh getraut, the Parson has married them early this morning.

95. Das keine Balken hat? which no rafters has, that has no rafters; Das, art, neut. used as pron, relative; ein Balken, masc. a rafter, a piece of house timber.

The words in en are masculine when they are not verbal words ; in the latter case, neuter; Kann man nicht Brücken bauen? Can one not bridges build ? might they not build bridges ? eine Brücke, fem. a bridge, fig. a passage ; der Tod ist die Brüeke zum ewigen Leben, death is the passage to life everlasting ; eine Zugbrücke, a drawbridge. bauen, reg. act. to build, to cultivate. We say, as in English, Schlösser in die Luft bauen, to build castles in the air; what the French call des châteaux en Espagne.

96. O daz ich niemand hier zu Rathe ziehen kann, O that 1 no one here to counsel draw can; O that I have no one to consult here ! jemand, somebody; niemand, nobody. zu Rathe ziehen, is an idiomatic expression, to consult; der Rath, masc. the advice. ziehen, to draw, to pull, to move, sec. 61.

97. Ob nichts zu fürchten ist, whether nothing to fear is ; whether there is any danger, any thing to be apprehended.

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Fürchten, to fear, is a regular active and neuter verb; was fürchten sie? what do you fear? ich fürchte dasz tadeln wird, I fear he will blame me; reflective, sich fürchten, to be afraid; Fürchten sie sich vor dem Gewitter ? Are you afraid of a thunder-storm? zum Glücke kam ein Mann, by luck came a man : fortunately a man came up.

98. Freund, rief er ihm, würd' Er Bedenken tragen ; Friend, called he to him, would

you hesitation carry, would you hesitate ? der Freund, es, e, plural die Freunde, the friend ; würd' Er, literally would he; because the Germans used to address an individual whom they supposed their inferior in the third person singular, whilst in polite intercourse we constantly use the third person plural. Modern Sovereign Princes employ this language of courtesy now to all persons of rank and education who approach them. But in the times of the Empress Maria Theresa, of Queen Charlotte in England, and of the Great Frederick of Prussia, this was not the case. The latter has been heard calling out in a loud voice to one of his best Generals (Governor Saldern, of Magdeburgh), after a long manoeuvre of the troops under his command, Saldern, höre Er auf, (instead of Hören Sic auf) give over ; das ist alles, und übertrift alles was man mit der Tactick thun kann! This is all, and surpasses all that can be done with tactics. Indeed it was this distinction to be observed according to the rank of the person you speak to, which rendered German conversation rather difficult. However, the third person plural is now generally used, and it is always the safest way for a foreigner to err on the side of politeness.

99. Bedenken tragen ; das Bedenken, neut. consideration; tragen, to carry, to consider. Here it approaches more the idea, would

you
hesitate ? would

you considering about it?

100. Sich hier in diesen Strom zu wagen? himself here into this stream to venture ? to venture to enter this river? der Strom, es, e, plural, die Ströme, the stream, the current. But it also denotes any large river that runs into the sea, such as the Rhine, the Danube, the Oder, the Elbe, &c., and figuratively we say, er wird vom Strome fortgerissen, he is hurried away by the stream; er will gegen den Strom schwimmen, he wants to swim against the current. wagen, reg. act. verb, to venture: wagen Sie nicht zu viel, do not

be long

venture too much; Sich an etwas wagen, to venture to approach, or to attempt a thing.

101. Kein's, none, neut., because it refers to das Bedenken, the consideration, hesitation; hätt'ich vollends, had I particularly, particularly if I had; vollends, adv. properly signifies fully, completely, entirely; but here it means especially, above all. Some writers spell it vollens, and anciently it was vollend.

102. so ein Thier als wie der Herr noch unter mir, 3o an animal as the gentleman still under me, such an animal under me as you have, Sir. das Thier, es, e, plural, die Thiere, the animal, but mostly an irrational animal, and frequently a wild animal, in contradistinction to tame animals. Hence a park, in which animals live in a state of nature, is called in German, ein Thiergarten, masc. als wie, as like, is a redundant expression ; in common life we should say simply wie; der Herr, en, plural; die Herren, masc. the Gentleman, the Lord, the Master; noch, conj. still, yet, is here an expletive which adds some intensity to the idea.

103. So ritt ich, glaub'ich, durch die Hölle, so rode I, I believe, through the Hell; I would, I think, ride through Hell; ich ritte, imp. subj , instead of the conditional ich wirde reiten, from the irregular active and neuter reiten. Ich reite, ish ritt, ich bin geritten, and actively ich habe geritten ; Er ist nach York geritten, he is gone to York on horseback ; Er hat sein bestes Pferd geritten, he rode his best horse; ich glaube, I believe, from glauben, reg: act. to believe, to think; Glauben Sie mir, believe me ; Ich kann es kaum glauben, I scarcely can believe it; die Hölle, fem. Hell.

104. Es scheint mir gleichwohl manche Stelle. The Es is here a mere adverbial expletive, which enables the author to throw the nominative manche stelle, many a place,” behind the verb. “Many a place however appears to me.” Scheinen, irreg, neut. to appear, to seem, to shive ; Ich scheine, ich schien, ich habe geschienen. Rememb that sch is equal to the English sh. The two verbs therefore agree in pronunciation. Die Sonne scheint, the sun shines; Es scheint mir, it appears to me. But if there be a nominative following, the es is a mere expletive. Es scheint mir das Brod viel grösser als gestern, the loaf appears to me much larger than yesterday; die Stelle, fem. the place, the spot; gleichwohl, conj. however'; nicht so gar fluch und seicht, not so very flat and shallow; hence we say, ein seichtes Wasser, ein seichter Fluss, and figuratively ein seichler Kopf, a shallow head.

105. Es konnte seyn, antwortete der Schalk, vielleicht, vielleicht auch nicht, it could be, answered the wag, per. haps, perhaps also not; that may or may not be, answered the wag antworten, reg. neut. to answer; but to reply to a letter, einen Brief beantworten. Er hat meinen letzten Brief nicht beantwortet, he has not replied to my last letter; vielleicht, adv. perhaps. This word ought to be carefully treasured up in the memory, because, in its two syllables, it is at the same time a guide to the right pronunciation of ie, equal to the English i in “ pistol," and ei equal to the English i in “ fine.” auch, conj. also, is here rather expletive.

106. eine Bitte, fem, a request, from the irr, bitten, to request; ich bitte, ich bat, ich habe gebeten. Like the French prier, it also signifies “ to invite;" ich bin nicht gebeten worden, I have not been invited.

107. und Trinkgeld, and drink money, n. erst, adv. first, der, die, das erste, the first; sometimes it means only." das Kind kann 'erst bis fünf zählen, the child can count only as far as five; zeigen, to show, is r. sicher, adj. secure, safe; der Pfad, 'm. the path ; sehr gern, very willingly, with much pleasure.

108. dazu wird Rath: we had already Rath in the sense of advice, counsel; but dazu wird Rath is an idiomatic expression, which means it shall be done, we'll contrive to do it; dazu kann Rath werden, the thing may be done, it may be determined that it shall be done.

109. steigt schnell von seinem Gaul herab, mounts quickly from his common horse down'; quickly dismounts from his horse. Steigen, to mount, gives aufsteigen or hinaufsteigen, to mount up; and absteigen and herabsteigen, to dismount; qussteigen, to alight from a carriage. It is irregular, ich steige, ich stieg, ich bin gestiegen; schnell, adv. quickly, swiftly; der Gaul, es, e, m. the horse, denotes in contradistinction to Pferd and Ross, which we had before, a draught or working horse, but also a horse in general; Setzt den Strom hindurch. Setzen, r. a. to place

D

&c. but here it denotes a violent motion like leaping forwards ; über einen Graben setzen, to leap over a ditch.

110. Gemach, adv. used here as interjection, Gently! In sec. 64 we had it as a substantive, the chamber.

111. allein es hilft kein Schreien, again the expletive es, no screaming avails. Helfen, to help, is irr. Ich helfe, du hilfst, er hilft; the plural is regular, ich half, ich habe geholfen.

112. The German ohne, without, before a verb, is always construed with the infinitive. ohne sich an sein Geschrei zu kehren, without heeding his cries. Kehren, neut. to turn about; act. to change the direction of a thing; to sweep.

113. jagt er noch mehr, he gallops still more, still faster; jagen is properly to hunt, to chase, but as a noun it also means to ride very fast.

114. hört oder will nicht hören ; in prose, as in English, we should have the nicht twice, he hears not, or will not (is not inclined to) hear; hören, to hear, is reg.

115. lenken, to guide; umlenken, a sep. comp. verb, to turn about.

116. der Schalk, masc. the wag; der Spass, masc, the joke.

117. mir behagt diess Pferd, this horse suits me. The remainder is easy.

118. The following German song is one of Gleim's, who wrote many patriotic songs, during the seven years' war, in behalf of the Prussian cause, and who died in 1803, in his 84th year. It runs thus :

DIE EINLADUNG,
Ich hab'ein kleines Hüttchen nur,
Es steht auf einer Wiesenflur
An einem Bach; der Bach ist klein !
Könnt aber wohl nicht heller seyn.

Am kleinen Hüttchen steht ein Baum,
Man sieht vor ihm das Hüttchen kaum,
Und gegen Sonne, Kält und Wind
Beschützt er die darinnen sind.

Und eine gute Nachtigall
Singt auf dem Baum so süssen Schall,

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