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line, in the language of politeness to a stranger, would be, Wollen Sie mit mir gehn? Endeavour to master all the auxiliary verbs, and to familiarize yourself with the rule that the government of the verb and every circumstance relating to it must stand between the auxiliary and the principal verb. Will you write a letter to your father ? Wollen Sie einen Brief an Ihren Vater schreiben? I wanted to write last night, but I had no paper; Ich wollte gestern Abend schreiben aber ich hatte kein Papier.

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144. We now select one of Goethe's Songs, which probably suggested the first lines of Lord Byron's Bride of Abydos

Kennst du das Land wo die Citronen blühn,
Im dunkeln Laub die Goldorangen glühn,
Ein sanfter Wind vom blauen Himmel weht,
Die Mirthe still, und hoch der Lorbeer steht?
Kennst du es wobl ? Dahin-dahia
Möcht' ich mit dir, o mein Geliebter ziehn!
Kennst du das Haus ? auf Säulen rubt sein Dach;
Es glänzt der Saal, es schimmert das Gemach,
Und Marmorbilder stehn und sehn mich an:
Was hat man dir, du armes Kind, getban?
Kennst du es wohl? Dabin-dabin
Möcht' ich mit dir, o mein Beschützer, ziebn !
Kennst du den Berg und seinen Wolkensteg ?
Das Maulthier sucht im Nebel seinen Weg ;
In Höhlen wohnt der Drachen alte Brut;
Es stürzt der Fels und über ihn die Fluth.
Kennst du ihn wohl? Dahin-dabin
Geht unser Weg; o Vater, lass uns ziehn!

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KNOWEST thou the land where citrons blosom? where in the dark foliage the golden oranges glow ? where a soft wind from the blue Heaven blows? tbe myrtle still, and high the laurel stands? Thither, thither, O my beloved one! I should like to remove with thee. Knowest thou the house? on pillars rests its roof; its ball sparkles, its chambers glitter, and marble statues stand and look at me, (as if they were saying,) wbat have they done to thee, poor child ? Knowest thou it well ? Thither, thither, O my protector, I should like to remove with thee! Knowest thou the mountain and its cloudy path? . The mule seeks its way in the mist; the old brood of Dragons dwells in its caves; the rock falls down, and the flood over it. Knowest thou it well? Thither, thither, leads our way. O fatber, let us go!

145. Kennst du das Land, knowest thou the land, doest thou know the land ? from the irr. kennen, to know, (connoître, “ cognoscere,") ich kenne, ich kannte, ich habe gekannt. das Land, neut. the land, the country, the soil. auf dem Lande, in the country (à la campagne), des Landes, dem Lrende ; in the pl. die Lande,collectively, and die Länder, the individual lands. Luther says, alle Lande sind deiner Ehre voll; all countries (the whole earth) are full of thy glory! and Ahasveros war König über hundert und sieben und zwanzig Länder, he reigned over 127 provinces. See Worte and Wörter, sec. 48. The words in and are generally neuter, except der Sand, the sand, der Rand, the edge, der Strand, the Strand; der Tand, tinsel, toy, idletalk, and der Brand, the conflagration, which are masc. and die Hand, the hand; die Wand, the inner wall or partition, which are feminine.

146. wo die Citronen blühn, where lemons blossom: the Germans are at liberty to generalize their ideas either with or without the article. Had it not been for the rythmus, the poet might have said, wo Citronen blühn. blühen, reg. verb, to bloom, to blossom, to blow, conj. with haben. Every infinitive in en may omit the e, provided it creates no harshness; thus it cannot be omitted in lieben, leben, arbeiten, streiten, because the word would become so harsh that it could hardly be pronounced.

147. im dunkeln Laub, a contraction for in dem dunkeln Laub, in the dark foliage; dunkel, adj. dark, obscure, unintelligible. das Laub, es, neut. the foliage; whence die Laube, fem. the arbour.

148. die Gold Orangen glühn, the gold oranges (golden oranges) glow. glühn, reg. neut. verb, to glow, conj. with haben. It is sometimes used actively, to make to glow. das Eisen gliihen, to heat iron as it glows.

149. ein sanfter Wind, a soft wind; the adj. marking the gender.

150. sanft adj. soft, mild.

151. vom blauen Himmel, contraction for von dem blauen Himmel, from the blue heaven; blau, blue. der Himmel, des Himmels, pl. die Himmel, the heaven, the sky; anciently any hollow covering; hence, a canopy over a throne is called ein Thronhimmel, masc.; a bed's head, ein Betthim. mel. It also means the climate, when we say, die Italiäner leben unter einen milden Himmel, the Italians live in a mild climate. Most words in el are masc. though there are several fem. and neut.

152. weht, third pers. sing. ind. pres, of the reg. neut. verb wehen, to blow like the wind; it is more noble than blasen, irr, which is said of musical wind instruments, Er bläst die Flöte, he blows or plays the flute. Der Wind wehet stark, the wind blows violently.

153. Die Mirthe still und hoch der Lorbeer steht, the myrtle stands still, and the laurel stands high; the myrtle grows quietly, and the laurel rises high. We had stillestehen, sec. 138. Hoch, adj. makes höher, bigher, in the comparative, without the letter c, but it has it in the superlative; der höchste, the highest; das höchste Gut, “summum bonum.”

154. Der Lorbeer, or Lorbeerbaum, masc. the laurel tree, the bay tree. Lorbeerblätter, bay leaves. Trees in general are fem. unless the name is coupled with Baum, which makes it masc.; as die mirthe, the myrtle, becomes der Mirthenbaum.

155. Kennst du es wohl ? Knowest thou it well ? dost thou know it well? es "it” refers to das Land, which is neuter.

156. Dahin, thither, is the adv. there, with the particle hin, which shows the direction from the speaker.

157. möchť ich mit dir, o mein Geliebter, ziehn! I should like with thee, O my beloved, to move ! The nom. ich is behind the verb, on account of the dahin beginning the sentence.

158. Ich möchte, I should like, is the imp. subj. of the aux, verb, Mögen, which must be learnt in the Grammar. When used as an optative, möchte is generally strengthened by wohl, well, or gern, willingly. Ich möchte wohl der Kaiser seyn! I should like to be the Emperor, says Gleim ; and another German poet, (Kospoth) after having declared that he had no wish to be the Pope, adds; yet when he receives his money, I should like to be his cousin or his brother for three short hours.

“ Doch streicht er seine Gelder ein
Dann möcht'ich auf drei Stündelein
Sein Vetter oder Bruder seyn."


159. mit der, with thee, dat. mit, prep. constantly governing the dative.

160.18 mein Geliebter, my beloved. We observed, sec. 139, that the adj. construed in the vocative must mark the gender ; the same takes place with the pron. poss, o mein geliebter Vater, meine geliebte Mutter, mein geliebtes Kind! We had ziehen, sec. 61.

161. auf Säulen, on pillars; auf, prep. upon, is here construed with the dative, because the roof rests, is at rest upon the pillars; eine Säule, fem. a pillar, a column; eine Denksäule, a monument; eine Schandsäule, a pillory.

162. ruht, third pers. sing. ind. pres. regular nent. verb, ruhen, to rest (with haben). nach gethaner Arbeit ist gut ruhen, rest is sweet after the labour is performed. die Kuppel der Kirche ruhet auf vier Säulen, the cupola of the church rests on four pillars.

163. sein Dach, its roof, in reference to Haus, which is neuter, and so is das Dach, the roof. Most words in ach, are neuter, except der Bach, sec. 125, and die Schmach, f. shame, disgrace.

164. Es glänzt der Saal, the hall sparkles. The es is expletive here, and serves merely to throw the nominative behind the verb.

165. glänzen, r, neut. verb (with haben), to shine, to sparkle. Der Saal, es, e, plural, die Säle, masc, the hall, the saloon, the drawing-room. It is generally coupled with a word that denotes the particular destination of such a large room--as der Speisesaal, the dining-room; Der Bildersaal, the picture-gallery; (ler Büchersaal, the Library; der Tanz, or Ballsaal, the ball-room; der Versammlungsaal, the Assembly-room; der Hörsaal, the lecture-room. In Hamburgh, Saal is a floor with two or three rooms. Hence you often see printed bills in the windows of different housės, stating, hier ist ein Saal zu Hauer, or zu Miethe, here is a floor to let.

166. Schimmern, reg. neut. nerb (with haben) to glitter with a weaker light than shining or sparkling; die Sterne schimmern und die Sonne scheint, the stars glitter, and the sun shines. Das Gemach being a private bed-room, sec. 64, the Poet insinuates that these rooms, though splendidly furnished, are less splendid than the drawing-room.

167. und Marmorbilder stehn, and marble images stand; marble statues, properly eine Bildsäule, fem. a statue ; ein Bild, neut. es, e, plural; Bilder, an image, a picture, a representation of any kind; an allegory. ein Bildhauer, masc. a statuary.

168. und sehn mich an, and look at me. From sehen, sec. 75, to see, and the particle an, at, we make the sep. comp. verb, ansehen, to look at, to perceive by looking at. Warum sehen Sie mich so an? why do you look thus at me ? Ich weiss nicht warum ich Sie ansehe. I do not know why I look at you. Man sieht es Ihnen an dass Sie die Nacht nicht geschlafen haben, one may perceive, by looking at you, that you have not slept last night. Observe that in those cases where the verb is to stand last, the separable particle is again conjoined with the verb. Sehen Sie das Kind an, look at the child. Ich glaube nicht dass Sie das Kind ansehn, I do not believe that you are looking at the child. Nein, dieses ist das Kind welches ich ansehe; No, this is the child which I am looking at.

169. After this line you must supply the words, “as if they were saying." It is a strong poetical ellipsis, which the German language readily admits.

170. Was hat man dir, du armes Kind, gethan? what has one done, what have they done to thee, thou poor child ? du armes Kind, again armes, because Kind, a child, is neuter ; das Kind, es, e, plural die Kinder. Da ich noch ein Kind war, when I was yet a child; in my child hood.

171. mein Beschützer, my patron, my protector ; der Beschützer, ers, masc. from beschützen, to protect.

172. Kennst du den Berg, knowest thou the mountain ; der Berg, es, e, plural, die Berge, the mountain, the mount, the bill, and frequently any rising ground. Hence several German towns are named berg, as Königsberg, King's-hill; Johannisberg, St. John's-bill. We say, die Haare standen mir zu Berge, my hair stood on end; er ist über alle Berge, he is gone heaven knows where. Da stehen die Ochsen um Berge, here are the oxen standing at the bill, to denote here is the difficulty, now we are stopped. Wir sind noch nicht über den Berg, we have not yet got over the (hill) difficulty. Der Kreutzberg, near Berlin, is a Sandhill, on which there is an iron monument to commemorate the exploits of the Prussians against the French, in

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