masc. a thornbush ; ein Johannisbeerenbusch, a currantbush ; ein Stachelbeerenbusch, a gooseberry-bush.

327. der Jüngling, es, e, die Jünglinge, masc. the young man, a youth. The syllable ling, in German, is often a diminutive, and corresponds in some cases with the English ling, as in der Säugling, the suckling; der Findling, the foundling; der Mietling, the hireling; der Liebling, the darling. die Wonne, fem. delight, is a poetical word, expressive of a high degree of pleasure, endless and unmixed, Tiedge says:

“ So säng ich ihn, den Gott, der Leben

In alles haucht
Und jedes Leben
In Wonne taucht."

Thus would I sing him, the God, who breathes life into all, and dips each life into delight.

328. Wonne der Wonnen ists Menschen enfreuen, it is the delight of delights (the highest of all delights) to make men happy. in zerrisne Seelen, into torn souls, distracted souls. zerrissen is the past part, of the irreg. insep. comp. verb, zerreissen, to tear in pieces ; from reissen, to tear. ich zerreisse, ich zerriss, ich habe zerrissen. The inseparable particle zer generally denotes a total dissolution or dispersion of parts by means of the verb to which it is prefixed. It paints this dissolution even by its sound, which seems to imitate the noise of a violent dispersion of a whole into small parts. Burger says :

“ Wer bist du, Fürst, dass ungestraft

Zerrollen mich dein Wagenrad
Dein Ross zerschlagen darf ?”

Who art thou, prince, that the wheel of thy chariot may with impunity crush me, and thy horse beat me to pieces ?

329. Ruh is a poetical license for Ruhe ; die Ruhe, fem. quiet, rest, repose, tranquillity. er hut sich in Ruhe begeben, he retired from business; die öffentliche Ruhe, public tranquillity. zur Ruhe, or in seine Ruhe eingehen, to go to the repose of the grave, to die. Ruhe also denotes the place where a person finds or at least seeks for repose, David says, Dies ist meine Ruhe ewiglich, hier will ich wohnen, “ This is my rest for ever; here will I dwell.”—Psalms, cxxxii. 14. Hence the names of several summer palaces in Germany, as Wilhelmsruhe, Louisensruhe, Carlsruhe, which is now the capital of the Grand Duchy of Baden.

330. wunderschon, admirably beautiful, is a compound adjective, made of wunder, wonder, and schön, beautiful. We say in a similar way, wundergross, uncommonly great; wunderherrlich, uncommonly magnificent; wunderköstlich, uncommonly exquisite; wunderselten, uncommonly rare; wunderstark, uncommonly strong.

331. werth, adj. worthy, worth, dear, esteemed. When it denotes worth, with regard to price or value, it is construed with the accusative. der Ring ist einen Dukaten werth, the ring is worth a ducat; die Sache ist keinen Heller werth, the thing is not worth a farthing. But when it means worthy, it is generally construed with the genitive. er ist aller Ehren werth, he is deserving of all kind of honours; es ist nicht der Rede werth, it does not deserve to be mentioned; es ist der Mühe werth, it is worth the while, it is worthy of the trouble it will require.

332. drum is a contraction for darum, conj. therefore, on that account.

333. Schiller's little poem on the invincible Armada of Spain, which he wrote in the year 1786, will furnish us with some grammatical and philological remarks :

Sie kömmt, sie kömmt, des Mittags stolze Flotte

Das Weltmeer wimmert unter ihr;
Mit Kettenklang und einem neuen Gotte

Und tausend Donnern naht sie dir,
Ein schwimmend Heer furchtbarer Citadellen

(Der Ozean sah ihres gleichen nie)
Unüberwindlich nennt man sie,

Ziebt sie einher auf den erschrock’nen Wellen;
Den stolzen Namen weiht

Der Schrecken, den sie um sich speit.
Mit majestätisch stillem Schritte
Trägt seine Last der zitternde Neptun;

Weltuntergang in ihrer Mitte,
Nabt sie heran und alle Stürme ruhn.

Dir gegenüber steht sie da,
Glücksel'ge Insel, Herrscherin der Meere,
Dir drohen diese Gallionen Heere,

Groszherzige Britannia !
Web deinem freigebor'nen Volke!
Da steht sie, eine wetterschwang're Wolke.
Wer hat das hohe Kleinod dir errungen

Das zu der Länder Fürstin dich gemacht?
Hast du nicht selbst, von stolzen Königen gezwungen,

Der Reichsgesetze weisestes erdacht,
Das grosse Blatt, das deine Könige zu Bürgern

Zu Fürsten deine Bürger macht?
Der Segel stolze Obermacht
Hast du sie nicht von Millionen Würgern

Erstritten in der Wasserschlacht?
Wem dankst du sie-erröthet Völker dieser Erde-
Wem sonst als deinem Geist und deinem Schwerte?
Unglückliche, blick hin auf diese feuerwerfenden Kolossen
Blick hin und abnde deines Ruhmes Fall.

Bang' schaut auf dich der Erdenball,
Und aller freinen Männer Herzen schlagen,
Und alle gute schöne Seelen klagen,
Theilnehmend deines Ruhmes Fall.

Gott der Allmächt'ge sah berab,
Sab deines Feindes stolze Löwenflaggen wehen,

Sab drobend offen dein gewisses Grab:
Soll, sprach er, soll mein Albion vergeben,

Erlöschen meiner Helden Stamm,
Der Unterdrückung letzter Felsendamm
Zusammenstürzen, die Tirannenwehre
Vernichtet seyn von dieser Hemisphäre ?

Nie, rief er, soll der Freiheit Paradies,
Der Menschenwürde starker Schirm verschwinden!

Gott der Allmächt'ge bliess
Und die Armada filog nach allen Winden.


She comes, she comes, the proud fleet of the south: the ocean groans under her; she approaches thee with the clanking of chains, a new religion, and a thousand thunderbolts ; a floating army of dreaded castles (never did the ocean beholdthe like) called the Invincible ; she moves along upon the affrighted waves: the terror which she casts around gave her that proud name. Trembling Neptune carries his burthen with a majestic slow pace. Destruction to the world her bosom, she draws near, and all tempests are hushed. She stands over against thee, blessed island, sovereign of the seas ; it is thee, high-minded Britain, that these galleon armies threaten. Wo to thy freeborn people! Yonder she stands, a cloud pregnant with storms.

Who obtained for thee the invaluable prerogative which made thee the first of all countries ? Was it not thyself, wbo, driven to it by haughty kings, didst contrive the wisest of all constitutional laws, that Great Charter which makes thy monarchs citizens, and thy citizens princes? The proud superiority of thy navy, hast thou not conquered it in innumerable sea-fights over millions of warriors ? To what dost thou owe that superiority-blush, ye nations of this globeto what, but to thy spirit and thy sword ?

Unhappy Britain, bebold these fire-vomiting colossal ships ; see and dread the loss of thy glory. The world looks at thee dismayed, the hearts of all free men beat high, and all good and noble souls lament with sympathy the loss of thy glory.

God Almighty looked down, he saw the enemy's proud lions waving, saw thy open grave threatening certain destruction. Is my Albion to perish ? he said: is the race of my heroes to be extinct ? is the last strong dike against oppression to crumble to pieces? Is the great bulwark against tyrants to be swept from this hemisphere ? Never, he exclaimed, never shall this paradise of freedom, this strong palladium of the dignity of man, disappear! God Almighty breathed, and the Armada was dispersed to all the quarters of the winds.

334. Uniiberwindlich, adj. unconquerable, invincible. die Flotte, fem. the fleet; die Kriegsflotte, a fleet of men of war; eine Kauffarteiflotte, a fleet of merchantmen. das Weltmeer, s, plur. e, neut. the ocean, literally the worldsea; the gender of two combined substantives is always that of the noun which stands last. wimmern, reg. active and neut. to groan. It must be carefully distinguished from winnmeln, neut. to swarm. der Kettenklang, es, e, masc. again a compound word, the clanking of chains, from die Kette, fem. the chain; and der Klang, masc. the sound of a body which is made to vibrate either by touch or stroke; but more particularly the sound of church-bells. mit Sang und Klung, with singing and the ringing of bells.

335. und einem neuen Gotte, and a new god, in the dative masculine, on account of the prep. mit, with. A new god here means a new religion, in allusion to the Roman Catholic creed, which the Spanish inquisitors wisheit to introduce again into England by main force.

336. naht sie dir, she approaches thee; the nominative is behind the verb, on account of the adverbial idea which prefaces it. Nahen, reg. neut. to approach ; it is conju

seyn in the compound tenses, and generally construed with heran in prose: die Zeit nahet heran, the time is approaching. It is also employed as a refl. verb. Er nahete sich mir, he approached me. Schwimmend, part, act.

gated with

of schwimmen, to swim. ein Heer, es, l, plur. Heere, neut. an army, a troop, a multitude, a swarm. furchtbar, adj. formidable, dreadful, dreaded. The syllable bar added to any noun substantive converts it into an adjective. It is derived from the same root as the English verb, “ to bear," to carry, and denotes, 1. producing or performing, as here, furchtbar, what produces fear; kostbar, what causes expense; nutzbar, what yields an example ; fruchtbar, fertile, what produces fruit; dienstbar, serviceable, what renders service; dankbar, thankful, what renders thanks. 2. Capability to act or to be acted upon: brennbar, combustible, what can burn; denkbar, credible, what may be supposed or thought; streitbar, able-bodied, capable of fighting; essbar, that may be eaten; trinkbar, potable, that may be drunk; brauchbar, that may be put to use; sichtbar, visible, that may be seen ; fühlbar, sensible, that may be felt. 3. Resemblance : scheinbar, specious, having the appearance of truth; wunderbar, wonderful, being like a wonder; mannbar, said of a male youth having a man-like appearance, but, said of a young female, it belongs to the second class, and means marriageable ; offenbar, revealed, evident, made open, as it were, like an open thing. Many of these adjectives may be converted into negative ones, by having the syllable un prefixed to them, as unfruchtbar, undankbar, unbrauchbar, &c. and both these negative and affirmative adjectives in bar may be again converted into fresh substantives, by the addition of the syllable keit, which are all of the feminine gender : die Fruchbarkeit, die Dankbarkeit, die Brauchbarkeit, &c. eine Citadelle, fem. a garrison, a castle ; it is properly a French word. The German word is eine Festung. Schiller, Goethe, and Wieland, have still many French words in their writings, which occasionally disfigure ther. The very first noun in the next line is again French or Latin. Der Ozean, es, pl. die Ozeane, the ocean. We have das Meer, and das Weltmeer, which Schiller himself uses in the second line of this poem. ihres gleichen, like it, viz. like the fleet; gleich, adj. like, equal, gives the indeclinable dergleichen and desgleichen, the like ; and by the same analogy we say meines gleichen, deines gleichen, ihres gleichen, &c. my equal or equals, thy equal or equals, their equal or equals, &c.; a fellow-creature is

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