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The average highest rise was 0.014° C., the extremes being 0.0169o and 0.0084° C.

The average lowest fall was 0·0243° the extremes being 0.0338° C. and 0.0211° C.

The tables of Dr. Amidon furnish the following values for the muscles in question.* The total number of experiments was sixty three.

Number of Per

centages. Rise of temperature........ 31 49.2063 Average rise, 0.2589°C. Fall

4

6:3492 Maximum 0.8333°C. Temperature unchanged 28 44.4445 Minimum 0.1388°C.

cases.

It remains now to collect and to examine together all the results set forth in the six sets of experiments, which have engaged our attention. This is done in the following table:

*

Op. cit., p. 43. The muscles of the mouth alone are taken, the values of the orbicularis palpebrarum having been given before.

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Number

Number of cases.

of cases.

a. Rise without fall

b. Fall without rise

Totals.

16

9

10

9

81

A glance at the above table shows that the results of our experiments are most decidedly contradictory of the views held by Dr. Amidon. Of the eighty-one results only three, or less than four per cent., can be construed as affording evidence of a rise of temperature due to muscular contraction per se; and in two of these cases (2nd and 3rd experiments on biceps, pp. 26 and 27) the rise was only temporary, the temperature falling back to the starting point in the succeeding minute. There would, indeed, seem to be much greater evidence that the muscular movements bring about a fall of temperature. Thus, if we leave out the ten cases of change of thermal level, we may group the rest of the results as follows :

Per

centages. a. Cases in which there was either an independent

rise, or in which the latter condition predominated 4 5.6338 6. Cases in which there was either an independent fall, or in which the latter condition predominated...

29:5774 c. Cases in which the rise and fall were equal.........

9.8592 d. Cases in which no change of temperature occurred

54.9296

Number of

cases.

.. ..

21

7 39

...

...

Here we see that the cases in which a fall of temperature is the ruling condition are more than five times as numerous as those in which a rise of temperature prevails.

But although there is not sufficient proof of a rise of temperature in the head, specially due to muscular contraction (leaving out the question of exact localization of such a rise), yet it would seem, that, in a certain number of cases, the muscular movements, in some way, cause a disturbance of the temperature of the head, this disturbance showing itself in elevations or depressions, or again, in irregular fluctuations, of temperature. In fact, the variations of temperature noted in a number of the experiments were greater than those ordinarily met with in the quiescent mental state; but in exactly what way these variations are connected with the muscular movements is not yet clear.

Note to Experiments on the Effect of Voluntary

Muscular Contractions.

WHILE these investigations were in the press the writer learned, for the first time, that both M. Paul Bert and M. François Franck had, in the past spring and summer (1880), repeated Dr. Amidon's experiments, and had failed to confirm his results. The writer has not seen the published accounts of MM. Bert and Franck, and knows their investigations only through an indirect and general report.

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