suspended, p. 610.–Supernatural beings believed to be subject to human

needs, p. 610 sq.-To require offerings, p. 611 54. -Sacrificial gifts offered to

supernatural beings with a view to averting evils, pp. 612 614. -With a view

to securing positive benefits, pp. 614-616.- Thank-offerings, p. 615 st).-

Sacrificial victims intended to serve as substitutes for other individuals, whose

lives are in danger, pp. 616-618.-Occasionally regarded as messengers, p.

618.-Sacrifices offered for the purpose of transferring curses, pp. 618-624.-

The covenant sacrifice, pp. 622-624. -The sacrificial victim or offered article

a vehicle for transferring benign virtue to him who offered it or to other

persons, p. 624 sq.-Sacrifice becomes a symbol of humility and reverence, p.

625 sq. ---Sacrifice as a duty, p. 626. -Supernatural beings possess property,

and this must not be interfered with, p. 626 sq. -Sacred objects must not be

appropriated for ordinary purposes, p. 627 sq. --The right of sanctuary, pp.

628-638. --Its prevalence, pp. 628-634.-Explanation of this right, pp. 634-



DUTIES TO GODS (concluded)

Supernatural beings sensitive to insulis and disrespect, p. 639 sq:-Irreverence to

gods punished by men, ibid. - The names of supernatural beings tabooed, pp.

640-643.-Explanation of these taboos, p. 642 59:-Atheism, p. 643 sq.

Unbelief, pp. 644-646. - Heresy, p. 646 59.-- Polytheism by nature tolerant,

pp. 647-649.-The difference in toleration between monotheistic and poly-

theistic religions shows itself in their different attitudes towards witchcraft,

pp. 649-652.- The highest stage of religion free from intolerance, p. 652 sq

Prayer a tribute to the self-regarding pride of the god to whom it is

addressed, pp. 653–655. -- Prayers connected with offerings, p. 655 sq.- Magic

efficacy ascribed to prayer, pp. 656-659.--Gods demand obedience, p. 659.

-The influence of this demand upon the history of morals, p. 659 sq.

Explanation of the obligatory character attached to men's conduct towards

their gods, pp. 660-662.


The supernatural beings of savage belief frequently described as utterly indifferent

to all questions of worldly morality, pp. 603-665. — The gods of many savages

mostly intent on doing harm to mankind, pp. 665-667.-Adoration of

supernatural beings which are considered at least occasionally beneficent

also very prevalent among uncivilised peoples, pp. 667-669. — Their

benevolence, however, does not prove that they take an active interest in

morality at large, p. 669. - Instances in which savage gods are supposed to

punish the transgression of rules relating to worldly morality, pp. 669-687. –

Savages represented as believing in the existence of a supreme being who is a

moral law-giver or judge, pp. 670-687:—The prevalence of such a belief in

Australia, pp. 670-675.-In Polynesia and Melanesia, p. 675.-In the

Malay Archipelago, p. 675 sq.-In the Andaman Islands, p. 676. -- Among the

Karens of Burma, p. 677.-In India, p. 677 sq.-Among the Ainu of Japan,

p. 678. — Among the Samoyedes, ibid. -Among the Greenlanders, ibid.

Among the North American Indians, pp. 679-681.—Among the South

American Indians, p. 681 sq.-In Africa, pp. 682-685.-Explanation of this

belief, pp. 685-687.-The supreme beings of savages invoked in curses or

oaths, p. 686 sq.-The oath and ordeal do not involve a belief in the gods as

vindicators of truth and justice, pp. 687-690. —The ordeal essentially a

magical ceremony, ibid. --Ordeals which have a different origin, p. 690.-

The belief in a moral retribution after death among savages, pp. 690-695.

The sources to which it may be traced, pp. 691-695. –The influence of

religion upon the moral consciousness of savages, p. 695 sq.

pp. 825-852

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]


The right of property implies that a certain person or certain persons are recognised as having a right to the exclusive disposal of a certain thing. The owner is not necessarily allowed to do with his property whatever he likes ; but whether absolute or limited, his right to disposal is not shared by anybody else, save under very exceptional circumstances, as in the case of “ compulsion by necessity.” Property in a thing thus means not only that the owner of it is allowed, at least within certain limits, to use or deal with it at his discretion, but also that other persons are forbidden to prevent him from using or dealing with it in any manner he is entitled to.

The most common offence against property is illicit appropriation of other persons' belongings. Not the mere fact that individuals are in actual possession of certain objects, but the public disapproval of acts by which they are deprived of such possession, shows that they have proprietary rights over those objects. Hence the universal condemnation of what we call theft or robbery proves that the right of property exists


all races of men known to us.

1 Supra, i. 285 $49.



Travellers often accuse savages of thievishness.' But then their judgments are commonly based upon the treatment to which they have been subject themselves, and from this no conclusions must be drawn as regards intratribal morality. Nor can races who have had much to do with foreigners be taken as fair representatives of savage honesty, as such contact has proved the origin of thievish propensities.” In the majority of cases uncivilised peoples seem to respect proprietary rights within their own communities, and not infrequently even in their dealings with strangers. Many of them are expressly said to con

1 Beni, Notizie sopra gli indigeni P: 79; Mitchell, Expeditions into the di Mexico,’ in Archivio per l'antropo- Interior of Eastern Australia, i. 264, logia e la etnologia, xii. 15 (Apaches). 304 ; Lumholtz, Among Cannibals, Burton, City of the Saints, p. 125 p. 71 sq. (Australian tribes). Reade, (Dacotahs and Prairie Indians). Powers, Savage Africa, p. 579 (West African Tribes of California, p. 127 (Yuki). Negroes). Bosman, Description of the Machie, Vancouver Island and British Coast of Guinea, p. 324 sy. (Negroes of Columbia, p. 468. Heriot, Travels Fida and the Gold Coast). Caillie, through the Canadas, p. 22 (New- Travels through Central Africa, i. 353 foundland Eskimo). Coxe, Russian (Mandingoes). Beltrame, n Fiume Discoveries between Asia and America, Bianio, p. 83 (Shilluk). Wilson and p. 300 (Kinaighi). Georgi, Russia, iv. Felkin, Uganda and the Egyptian 22 (Kalmucks), 133 (Buriats). Scott Soudan, ii. 310 (Gowane people of Robertson, Kafirs of the Hindu-Kush, Kordofan). Krapf, Travels, Researches, p. 193 sq. Modigliani, Viaggio a Nias, and Missionary Labours in Eastern

Powell, Wanderings in a Africa, p. 355 (Wakamba). Burton, Wild Country, p. 23 (South Sea Is. Zanzibar, ii. 92 (Wanika). Bonfanti, landers). Romilly, From my Verandah L'incivilimento dei negri nell'Africa in New Guinea, p. 50 ; Comrie, ‘An. intertropicale,' in Archivio per l' antro. thropological Notes on New Guinea, pologia e la etnologia, xv. 133 (Bantu in jour. Anthr. Inst. vi. 109 sq. de races). Arbousset and Daumas, Er. Labillardière, l'orage in Seari h of La ploratory Tour to the North-East of the Pérouse, i. 275; Moseley, Notes by a Colony of the Cape of Good Hopi, Naturalist on the Challenger,"'p: 391 P: 323 (Bechuanas). Andersson, Larki (Admiralty Islanders).

Brenchley, Ngami, pp. 468 sq. (Bechuanas), 499 Jottings during the Cruise of H.M.S. (Bayeye). Leslie, Among the Zulus Curaçoa, p. 58 (natives of Tutuila). and Amatongas, p. 256. Fritsch, Die Lisiansky, loyage round the World, Eingeborenen Suid-Afrika's, pp. 53 p. 88 sq. (Nukahivans). Williams, (Kafirs), 372, 419 (Hottentots and Missionary Enterprises in the South Bushmans). Sea Islands, p. 126 (natives of Raro- 2 Domenech, Great Deserts of North tonga). Cooke, Journal of a Voyage America, ii. 321. Mackenzie, Voyages round the World, p. 40 ; Montgomery, to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans, p. Journal of Voyages and Travels by xcvi. note (Crees). Burton, Highlands Tyerman and Bennet, ii. 11 (Society of the Brazil, i. 403 sq;

Moorcroft Islanders). Barrington, History of and Trebeck, Travels in the Himalayan New South IVales, p. 22 ; Breton, Ex- Provinces, i. 321 (Ladakhis). Anderson, cursions in New South Wales, p. 221 ; Mandalayto Xlomien,p.151 (Kakhyens). Collins, diount of the English Colony Earl, Paphans, p. 8o. Tyler, Forty in New South Wales, i. 599 sy. ; Years among the Zulus, p. 192. Hodgson, Reminiscences of Australia,

p. 468.

« ͹˹Թõ