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of their species which is not an object of their anger or their fear. Savages have shown themselves capable of tender feelings towards suffering and harmless strangers. The sensibility of little children sometimes goes beyond the circle of the family ; Madame Manacéine tells us of a girl two years old who, in the Zoological Gardens at St. Petersburg, began to cry bitterly when she saw an elephant walking over the keeper's body, although the other spectators were quietly watching the trick.? In mankind altruism has been narrowed by social isolation, by differences in race, language, habits, and customs, by enmity and suspicion. But increased intercourse has gradually led to conditions favourable to its expansion. As Buckle remarks, ignorance is the most powerful of all the causes of national hatred “when you increase the contact, you remove the ignorance, and thus

you

diminish the hatred.” 3 People of different nationalities feel that in spite of all dissimilarities between them there is much that they have in common ; and frequent intercourse makes the differences less marked, or obliterates many of them altogether. There can be no doubt that this process will go on in the future. And equally certain it is that similar causes will produce similar effects—that altruism will continue to expand, and that the notion of a human brotherhood will receive more support from the actual feelings of mankind than it does at present.

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i See supra, i. 570-572, 581.

2 Manacéine, Le surmenage mental dans la civilisation moderne, p. 248.

See also Compayré, op. cit. p. 323.

3 Buckle, History of Civilization in England, i. 222.

CHAPTER XXXV

SUICIDE

In previous chapters we have discussed the moral valuation of acts, forbearances, and omissions, which directly concern the interests of other men ; we shall now proceed to consider moral ideas regarding such modes of conduct as chiefly concern a man's own welfare. Among these we notice, in the first place, acts affecting his existence.

Suicide, or intentional self-destruction, has often been represented as a fruit of a higher civilisation ; Dr. Steinmetz, on the other hand, in his essay on ‘Suicide among Primitive Peoples,' thinks it probable that “there is a greater propensity to suicide among savage than among civilised peoples."? The former view is obviously erroneous; the latter probably holds good of certain savages as compared with certain peoples of culture, but cannot claim general validity.

Among several uncivilised races suicide is said to be unknown. To these belong some of the lower savagesthe Yahgans of Tierra del Fuego, the Andaman Islanders,

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1 Steinmetz, 'Suicide among Primitive Peoples,' in American Anthro. pologist, vii. 60.

2 Paulitschke, Ethnographie NordostAfrikas, p. 205 (Danakil and Galla). Munzinger, Ostafrikanische Studien, p. 532 (Barea and Kunáma). New, Life, Wanderings, and Labours in Eastern Africa, p. 99 (Wanika).

Felkin, Notes on the For Tribe of Central Africa,' in Proceed. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, xiii. 231. Lumholtz (Unknown Mexico, i. 243) thinks it is doubtful whether a pagan Tarahumare ever killed himself.

3 Bridge, in South American Mis. sionary Magazine, xii. 211.

4 Man, Jour. Anthr. Inst. xii. 111.

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and various Australian tribes;' whilst as regards most

; other tribes at about the same stage of culture information seems to be wanting. Of the natives in Western and Central Australia Sir G. Grey writes, “Whenever I have interrogated them on this point, they have invariably laughed at me, and treated my question as a joke.”? When a Caroline Islander was told of suicides committed by Europeans, he thought that he had not grasped what was said to him, as he never in his life had heard of

anything so ridiculous. The Kafirs of the Hindu-Kush, though they have no intense fear of death, cannot understand suicide ; "the idea of a man killing himself strikes them as inexplicable.” 4

Among many savages and barbarians suicide is stated to be very rare," or to occur only occasionally ;6 whereas

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I Grey, Expeditions of Discovery in North-IVest and Western Australia, ii. 248. Curr, Recollections of Squatting in Victoria, p. 277 (Bangerang). Among the tribes of Western Victoria described by Mr. Dawson (Australian Aborigines, p. 62) suicide is not un: known, though it is uncommon ; “if a native wishes to die, and cannot get any one to kill him, he will sometimes put himself in the way of a venomous snake, that he may be bitten by it.”

Grey, op. cit. ii. 248.

von Kotzebue, Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea, iii. 195.

Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's, p. 221 (Bantu race). Sorge, in Steinmetz, Rechtsverhällnisse,

p. 421 (Nissan Islanders in the Bismarck Archipelago). Kubary, ‘Die Verbrechen und das Strafverfahren auf den Pelau-Inseln,' in Original- Mittheilungen aus

der ethnol. Abtheil. d. königl. Museen 2u Berlin, i. 78 (Pelew Islanders). Among the Malays suicide is reported to be extremely rare (Brooke, Ten Years in Sarawak, i. 56 ; Ellis, “The Amok of the Malays,' in Journal of Mental Science, xxxix. 331); but Dr. Gilmore Ellis has been told by many Malays that they consider Amok a kind of suicide. If a man wishes to die, he “amoks” in the hope of being killed, rather than kills himself, suicide being a most heinous sin according to the ethics of Muhammedanism '(ibid. p. 331).

4 Scott Robertson, kafirs of the Hindu-Kush, p. 381.

5 Nansen, Eskimo Life, p. 267 (Greenlanders). Murdoch, Ethnol. Results of the Point Barrow Expedition,' in Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethn. ix. 41 (Point Barrow Eskimo).

von Sie. bold, Die Aino auf der Insel Yesso, p. 35. von Stenin, ‘Die Kirgisen des Kreises Saissansk im Gebiete von Ssemipalatinsk,' in Globus, Ixix. 230. Beltrame, I Fiume Bianco, p. 51 (Arabs). Felkin, Waganda Tribe of Central Africa,' in Proceeii. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, xiii. 723. Schwarz, quoted by Steinmetz, Rechtsverhält. nisse, p. 24 (Bakwiri). Ibid. p. 52 (Banaka and Bapuku). Wandrer, ibid. p. 325 (Hottentots). Fritsch, Die

In Siam suicide is rare (Bowring, Siam, i. 106). Of the Western Islanders of Torres Straits Dr. Haddon says (in Reports of the Cambridge Anthrop. Expedition 10 Torres Strails, v. 278) that he does not remember to have heard of a case of suicide in real life, though there are some instances of it in their folktales.

6 Comte, quoted by Mouhot, Travc's in the Central Parts of Indo-China, ii. 27 sq. (Bannavs in Cambodia). Kloss,

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among others it is represented as either common or extremely prevalent. Of the Kamchadales we are told

" that the least apprehension of danger drives them to despair, and that they fly to suicide as a relief, not only from present, but even from imaginary evil ; “ not only those who are confined for some offence, but such as are discontented with their lot, prefer a voluntary death to an uneasy life, and the pains of disease.” ? Among the Hos an Indian hill tribe, suicide is reported to be so frightfully prevalent as to afford no parallel in any known country :

—“ If a girl appears mortified by anything that has been said, it is not safe to let her go away till she is soothed. A reflection on a man's honesty or veracity may be sufficient to send him to self-destruction. In a recent case, a young

. woman attempted to poison herself because her uncle would not partake of the food she had cooked for him.”3 Among the Karens of Burma suicide is likewise very common where Christianity has not been introduced. If a man has some incurable or painful disease, he says matter-of-fact way that he will hang himself, and he does as he says ; if a girl's parents compel her to marry the man she does not love, she hangs herself; wives sometimes hang themselves through jealousy, sometimes because they quarrel with their husbands, and sometimes out of mere

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cases

In the Andamans and Nicobars, p. 316 (Nicobarese). Among the Bakongo of suicide occur,

although much less frequently than in civilised countries” (Ward, Five Years with the Congo Cannibals, p. 45).

1 Veniaminof, quoted by Petroff, Report on Alaska, p. 158 (Atkha Aleuts). Steller, Beschreibung von Kamtschatka, p: 293 sq.; Krasheninnikoff, History of Kamschatka, pp. 176,

Georgi, Russia, iii. 133 sq. (Kamchadales), 184 (Chukchi), 205 (Aleuts). Brooke, op. cit. i. 55 (Sea Dyaks). Williams and Calvert, Fiji, p. 106. Turner, Samoa, p. 305 ; Tregear, Niue,' in Jour. Polynesian Soc. ii. 14 ; Thomson, Savage Island, p. 109; Hood, Cruise in the Western Pacific, p.

22 (Savage Islanders).

Dieffenbach, Travels in New Zealand,
ii. Il sq. ; Collins, English Colony
in New South Wales, i. 524 (Maoris).
Reade, Savage Africa, p. 553 sq. ;
Idem, quoted by Darwin, Descent of
Man, p. 117, n. 33 (West African
Negroes), Monrad, Skildring af
Guinea-K’ysten, p. 23. Decle, Three
Years in Savage Africa, p. 74
(Barotse). In Tana, of the New
Hebrides (Gray, in Jour. Anthr. Inst.
xxviii. 132) and Nias (Rosenberg, Der
malayische Archipel, p. 146) suicides
are said to be not infrequent.

2 Georgi, op. cit. iii. 133 sq. Cf. Krasheninnikoff, op. cit. p. 176.

"Memoir on the Hodésum,' in Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, ix. 807. Dalton, Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal, p. 206.

200.

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chagrin, because they are subject to depreciating. comparisons; and it is a favourite threat with a wife or daughter, when not allowed to have her own way, that she will hang herself.! Among some uncivilised peoples suicide is frequently practised by women, though rarely by men.

The causes which, among savages, lead to suicide are manifold :—disappointed love or jealousy ; : illness“ or old age ;' grief over the death of a child, a husband, or a

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1 Mason, 'Dwellings, &c., of the logisk Skizze af Angmagsalikerne,' in Karens,' in Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Meddelelser om Grönland, x. 181 (Ang. xxxvii. pt. ii. 141.

magsaliks of

Eastern Greenland). 2 Keating, Expedition to the Source Georgi, op. cit. iii. 134 (Kamchadales). of St. Peter's River, i. 394 (Daco- Mason, in Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, tahs) ; ii. 171 sq. (Chippewas). Brad. xxxvii. pt. ii. 141 (Karens). Gray, in bury, Travels in the Interior of Jour. Anthr. Inst. xxviii. 132 (natives America, p. 87 (Dacotahs). Brooke of Tana, New Hebrides). Sartori, Low, quoted by Ling Roth, Natives of Die Sitte der Alten- und KrankenSarawak, i. 117 (Sea Dyaks). Mun- tötung,' in Globus, lxvii. 109 sq. zinger, Die Sitten und das Recht der 6 Perrin du Lac, Voyage dans les Bogos, p. 93.

deux Louisianes, p. 346. Nansen, 3 Lasch, *Der Selbstmord aus ero- First Crossing of Greenland, ii. 331 ; tischen Motiven bei den primitiven Idem, Eskimo Life, pp. 170, 267 Völkern,' in Zeitschrift für Social- (Greenlanders). Steller, Beschreibung wissenchaft, ii. 579 599. Westermarck, von Kamtschatka, p. 294. Wilkes, History of Human Marriage, p. 503. U.S. Exploring Expedition, iii. 96 ; Keating, op. cit. ii. 172 (Chippewas). Hale, U.S. Exploring Expedition. Eastman, Dacotah, pp. 89 sqq., 168 Vol. VI. Ethnography and Philology, sq. ; Dodge, Our Wild Indians, p. p. 65 (Fijians). Diodorus Siculus, 321 sq. (Dacotahs). Turner, ‘Ethno- Bibliotheca historica, iii. 33.5 (Trog. logy of the Ungava District, Hudson lodytes). Pomponius Mela, De situ Bay Territory,' in Ann. Rep. Bur. orbis, iii. 7 (Seres). Hartknoch, Alt. Ethn. xi. 187 (Koksoagmyut). Mason, und Neues Preussen, i. 181 (ancient in Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, xxxvii. pt. Prussians). Mareschalcus, Annales ii. 141 (Karens). Brooke Low, quoted Herulorum Vandalorum, i. 8 by Ling Roth, Natives of Sarawak, i. (Monumenta inedita rerum Germani. 115 (Sea Dyaks). Kubary, ‘Religion carum, i. 191); Procopius, De bello der Pelauer,' in Basti Allerlei aus hico, ii. 14 (Heruli). Maurer, Die Volks- und Menschenkunde, i. 3 (Pelew Bekehrung des Norwegischen Stammes Islanders). Senfit, in Steinmetz, zum Christenthume, ii. 79, n. 48 Rechtsverhältnisse, p. 452 (Marshall (ancient Scandinavians). Islanders). Codrington, Melanesians, 6 Veniaminof, quoted by Petroff, op. P: 243 sq. (natives of the Banks cit. p. 158 (Atkha Aleuts). Keating, Islands and Northern New Ilebrides). op. cit. ii. 172 (Chippewas). Colenso, Waitz, Anthropologie der Naturvölker, Maori Races, pp. 46, 57; Dieffenbach, vi. 115; Malone, Three Years' Cruise op. cit. ii. 112 (Maoris). in the dustralasian Colonies, p. 72 sq. 7 Veniaminof, quoted by Petroff, op. (Maoris). Reade, Savage Africa, p. cit. p. 158 (Atkha Aleuts). Haddon, 554 (West African Negroes). Mun- in Rep. Cambridge Anthr. Exped. to zinger, Die Sitten und das Recht der Torres Straits, v. 17 (Western Islanders, Bogos, p. 93 sq.

according to a Kauralaig folk-tale). • Dodge, op. cit. p. 321 sq. (North Colenso, op. cit. pp. 46, 57 ; Dieffen. American Indians). Tolm, • Ethno- bach, op. cit. ii. 112 (Maoris).

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