But forasmuch as it were great improvidence to loving subjects, that have votes in the elections of depend upon the success of such treaties, and there- knights and burgesses, of these few points following. fore good policy requires that we should be prepared First, That they cast their eyes upon the worthifor a war which we intend for the recovery and as- est men of all sorts, knights and gentlemen, that are suring of the said Palatinate, with the dependences, lights and guides in their countries, experienced a design of no small charge and difficulty, the parliament-men, wise and discreet statesmen, that strength and conjunctures of the adverse party con- have been practised in public affairs, whether at sidered, we have thought good to take into our home or abroad, grave and eminent lawyers, substanprincely and serious consideration, and that with tial citizens and burgesses, and generally such as speed, all things that may have relation to such a are interested and have portion in the estate. designment; amongst which we hold nothing more Secondly, That they make choice of such as are necessary than to confer and advise with the com- well affected in religion, without declining either mon council of our kingdom, upon this so important on the one hand to blindness and superstition, or on a subject.

the other hand to schism or turbulent disposition. For although the making of war or peace be a Thirdly, and lastly, that they be truly sensible, secret of empire, and a thing properly belonging to not to disvalue or disparage the house with bankour high prerogative royal, and imperial power ; yet rupts and necessitous persons, that may desire long nevertheless, in causes of that nature, which we parliaments only for protection ; lawyers of mean shall think fit not to reserve, but to communicate, account and estimation ; young men that are not we shall ever think ourselves much assisted and ripe for grave consultations; mean dependants upon strengthened by the faithful advice and general as great persons, that might be thought to have their sent of our loving subjects.

voices under command, and such like obscure and Moreover, no man is so ignorant, as to expect inferior persons : so that, to conclude, we may have that we should be any ways able, moneys being the the comfort to see before us the very face of a sufsinews of war, to enter into the list against so great ficient and well composed house, such as may be potentates, without some large and bountiful help worthy to be a representative of the third estate of of treasure from our people; as well towards the our kingdom, fit to nourish a loving and comfortable maintenance of the war, as towards the relief of our meeting between us and our people, and fit to be a crown and estate. And this the rather, for that we noble instrument, under the blessing of Almighty have now, by the space of full ten years, a thing God, and our princely care and power, and with the unheard of in late times, subsisted by our own means, loving conjunction of our prelates and peers, for the without being chargeable to our people, otherwise settling of so great affairs as are before expressed. than by some voluntary gifts of some particulars, which though in total amounted to no great matter, we thankfully acknowledge at their hands ; but as, while the affairs abroad were in greater calm, we

CCXLV. TO THE LORD CHANCELLOR.* did content ourselves to recover our wants by pro

MY HONOURABLE LORD, sident retrenchment of charge, and honourable improvement of our own, thinking to wear them out I have showed your letter and the proclamation without troubling our people; so in such a state of to his Majesty, who expecting only, according as christendom, as seemeth now to hang over our his meaning was, directions therein for the well beads, we durst no longer rely upon those slow re- ordering of the elections of the burgesses, findeth a medies, but thought necessary, according to the an. great deal more, containing matter of state, and the cient course of our progenitors, to resort to the good reasons of calling the parliament: whereof neither afections and aids of our loving subjects.

the people are capable, nor is it fit for his Majesty to ['pon these considerations, and for that also, in open unto them, but to reserve to the time of their respect of so long intermission of a parliament, the assembling, according to the course of his predetimes may have introduced some things fit to be re- cessors, which his Majesty intendeth to follow. The formed, either by new laws, or by the moderate declaring whereof in the proclamation would cut desires of our loving subjects, dutifully intimated off the ground of his Majesty's and your lordship's unto us, wherein we shall ever be no less ready to speech, at the proper time; his Majesty hath theregive them all gracious satisfaction, than their own fore extracted somewhat of the latter part of the hearts can desire, we have resolved, by the advice of draught you have sent, purposing to take a few days' oor privy council, to hold a parliament at our city space to set down himself what he thinketh fit, and of Westminster.

to make it ready against his return hither, or to And because as well this great cause, there to be Theobald's at the farthest, and then to communicate bariled amongst the rest, and to be weighed by the it to your lordship, and the rest of the lords. And beam of the kingdom, as also the true and ancient so I rest institution of parliament, do require the lower house,

Yours, &c. at this time, if ever, to be compounded of the gravest,

G. BUCKINGHAM. ahlest, and worthiest members that may be found : Royston, 19 Oct. 1620. we do hereby, out of the care of the common good, wherein themselves are participant, without all prejudice to the freedom of elections, admonish all our

* Stephens's Second Collection, p. 128.

When once

I hope God will bless me in them. CCXLVI. TO SIR* HENRY WOTTON.

my master, and afterwards myself, were both of us

in extremity of sickness, which was no time to disMY VERY GOOD COUSIN,

semble, I never had so great pledges and certainties The letter which I received from your lordship of his love and favour: and that which I knew then, upon your going to sea, was more than a compen- such as took a little poor advantage of these later sation for any former omission ; and I shall be very times, know since. As for the nobleman that passed glad to entertain a correspondence with you in both that way by you, I think he is fallen out with me kinds which you write of; for the latter, I am now for his pleasure, or else, perhaps, to make good ready for yon, having sent you some ore of that mine, some of his own mistakings. For he cannot in his I thank you for your favours to Mr. Meautys, and heart but think worthily of my affection and well I pray continue the same. So wishing you out of deserving towards him; and as for me, I am very your honourable exile, and placed in a better orb, sure that I love his nature and parts. I rest

Your lordship’s affectionate kinsman and
assured friend,


GREAT ACKNOWLEDGMENT AND KIND. York-house, Oct. 20, 1620.

NESS. 11

I have been too long a debtor to you for a letter,

and especially for such a letter, the words whereof CCXLVII. LORD OF ST. ALBANS TO MR.

were delivered by your hand, as if it had been in MATTHEW.I

old gold : for it was not possible for entire affection Sir,

to be more generously and effectually expressed. I The report of this act, which I hope will prove can but return thanks to you; or rather indeed such the last of this business, will probably, by the weight an answer, as may better be of thoughts than words. it carries, fall and seize on me. And therefore, not As for that which may concern myself, I hope God now at will, but upon necessity, it will become me hath ordained me some small time, whereby I may to call to mind what passed ; and, my head being redeem the loss of much. Your company was ever then wholly employed about invention, I may the of contentment to me, and your absence of grief; worse put things upon the account of mine own but now it is of grief upon grief. I beseech you memory. I shall take physic to-day, upon this therefore make haste hither, where you shall meet change of weather, and vantage of leisure; and I with as good a welcome as your own heart can wish. pray you not to allow yourself so much business, but that you may have time to bring me your friendly aid before night, &c.



SIR, HIS DANGER LESS THAN HE FOUND IT. It is not for nothing that I have deferred my

essay De amicitia; whereby it hath expected the SIR,

proof of your great friendship towards me : whatI say to you, upon the occasion which you give soever the event be, (wherein I depend upon God, me in your last, Modicæ fidei, quare dubitasti ? I who ordains the effects, the instrument, all,) yet your would not have my friends, though I know it to be incessant thinking of me, without loss of a moment out of love, too apprehensive either of me or for me; of time, or a hint of occasion, or a circumstance of for, I thank God, my ways are sound and good, and endeavour, or the stroke of a pulse, in demonstration

* Mr. Stephens observes, when this letter was written, so inward a secretary of her cabinet. But of your said work, upon the occasion of my lord chancellor's publishing his which came but this week to my hands, I shall find occasion Novum Organum, Sir Henry Wotton, so eminent for his

to speak more hereafter: having yet read only the first book many embassies, great learning, candour, and other accom- thereof, and a few aphorisms of the second. For it is not a banplishments, was resident at Vienna, endeavouring to quench quet that men may superficially taste, and put up the rest in that fire which began to blaze in Germany, upon the proclaim their pockets; but in truth a solid feast, which requireth due ing the elector Palatine king of Bohemia. How grateful a mastication-&c. present this book was to Sir Henry, cannot better be expressed “ But I am gone farther than I meant in speaking of this than by his answer to this letter: which though it may be excellent labour, while the delight I yet feel, and even the pride found in his Remains, the reader will not be displeased to see that I take in a certain congeniality, as I may term it, with part of it transcribed in this place.

your lordship's studies, will scant let me cease. And indeed “ RIGHT HONOURABLE AND MY VERY GOOD LORD,

I owe your lordship, even by promise, which you are pleased

to remember, and thereby doubly binding me, some trouble "I Have your lordship's letters dated October 20, and I this way; I mean by the commerce of philosophical expehave withal, by the care of my cousin Meautys, and by your riments, which surely, of all other, is the most ingenious own special favour, three copies of that work, wherewith your traffic." lordship hath done a great and ever-living benefit to all the † Stephens's Second Collection, p. 129. children of nature, and to nature herself in her uttermost ex- Sir Tobie Matthew's Collection of Letters, p. 20. tent and latitude; who never before had so noble nor so true Ibid. p. 32. || Ibid. p. 69. q Ibid. p. 53. an interpreter, or, as I am ready to style your lordship, never

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of your affection to me, doth infinitely tie me to you. solemnity, when they came without writ, but also on Commend my service to my friend. The rest to the days of sitting. And if it should be so, then the morrow, for I hope to lodge at London this night, &c. prince may vote, and likewise may be of a committee

Secrecy I need not recommend, otherwise than that of the upper house, and consequently may be of a you may recommend it over to our friend ; both be- conference with the lower house, and the like. cause it prevents opposition, and because it is both This might ha been made more manifest as to the king's and my lord marquis's nature, to love to the presence, and acts of the prince in days of sitting, do things unexpected.

if, through the negligence of officers, the journal books of the upper house before the reign of king Henry VIII. were not all missing.

All which we thought it appertained to our care CCLI. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.* to look through, and faithfully to represent to his

Majesty : and having agreed secrecy amongst ourOUR VERY GOOD LORD,

selves, and enjoined it to the inferior officers, we We thought it our duty to impart to his Majesty, humbly desire to know his Majesty's pleasure, wheby your lordship, one particular of parliament busi- ther he will silence the question altogether, or make ness, which we hold it our part to relate, though it use of it for his service, or refer it to his council, or be too high for us to give our opinion of it. what other course he will be pleased to take accord

The officers that make out the writs of parliament ing to his great wisdom and good pleasure. addressed themselves to me the chancellor to know, This we have despatched the sooner, because the whether they should make such a writ of summons writs of summons must have forty days distance from to the prince, giving me to understand, that there the first days of the parliament. And for the other were some precedents of it; which I the chancellor parts of our accounts, his Majesty shall hear from communicated with the rest of the committees for us, by the grace of God, within few days ; evermore parliament business ; in whose assistance I find so praying for his Majesty's prosperity, and wishing much strength that I am not willing to do any thing your lordship much happiness. without them: whereupon we, according to his Ma

Your lordship's to be commanded, jesty's prudent and constant rule, for observing in what reigns the precedents were, upon diligent search FR. VERULAM, CANC. EDW. COKE, H. MONTAGU, have found as followeth.

HENRY HOBARTE, That king Edward I. called his eldest son prince

York-house, 21 Oct. 1620. Edward to his parliament in the thirtieth year of his reign, the prince then being about the age of eighteen years; and to another parliament in the four and thirtieth year of his reign.

CCLII. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.T Edward III. called the Black Prince, his eldest son, to his parliament in the five and twentieth,

MY VERY GOOD LORD, eight and twentieth, and two and fortieth years of We have, these two days past, made report to the bis reign.

board of our parliament committee, upon relation Henry IV. called prince Henry to his parliaments whereof, for some things we provide, for some in the first, third, eighth, and eleventh years of his things we arm. reign, the prince being under age in the three first The king, by my lord treasurer's signification, did parliaments; and we find in particular, that the wisely put it upon a consult, whether the patents, eighth year, the prince sat in the upper house in which we mentioned in our joint letters, were at this days of business, and recommended a bill to the lords. time to be removed by act of council before parlia

King Edward IV. called prince Edward, his son, ment. I opined (but yet somewhat like Ovid's misto his parliament, in anno 22 of his reign, being tress, that strove, but yet as one that would be over

come) that yes. My reasons : king Henry VII. called prince Arthur to his That men would go better and faster to the main parliament in the seventh year of his reign, being errand.

That these things should not be staged, nor talked Of king

Edward VI. we find nothing, his years of, and so the less fuel to the fire. Tere tender, and he was not created prince of Wales. That in things of this nature, wherein the council

And for prince Henry, he was created prince of had done the like in former particulars, which I Wales during the last parliament at which he lived. enumerated, before parliament, near parliament,

We have thought it our duty to relate to his Ma- during parliament, the council were to keep their jesty what we have found, and withal that the writs wonted centinel, as if they thought not of a parliaof summons to the prince are not much differing ment, to destroy in other patents as concealments. from the writs to the peers; for they run in fide et The reasons on the other side were: lizeancia, and sometime in fide et homagio in quibus That it would be thought but an humouring of nobis tenemini, and after, consilium nobis impensuri the parliament, being now in the calends of a parcirca ardua regni. Whereby it should seem that liament, and that after parliament they would come princes came to parliament not only in the days of

up again. • Stephens's Second Collection, p. 129.

+ Stephens’s Second Collection, p. 137.

within age.

within age.

That offered graces, by reason and experience, lose their thanks.

CCLV. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.: That they are to be suffered to play upon some

MY VERY GOOD LORD, thing, since they can do nothing of themselves. That the choosing out of some things, when per

YESTERDAY I know was no day; now I hope I haps their minds might be more upon other things, shall hear from your lordship, who are my anchor would do no great effect.

in these floods. Meanwhile to ease my heart, I That former patents taken away by act of council, have written to his Majesty the enclosed; which I were upon the complaints of particular persons; pray your lordship to read advisedly, and to deliver whereas now it should seem to be done tanquam ex it, or not to deliver it, as you think good. God ever officio.

prosper your lordship. To this I yielded, though, I confess, I am yet a

Yours ever what I can, little doubtful to the point of suavibus modis. But it

FR. ST. ALBAN, CANC, is true that the speech of these, though in the lower

March 25, 1621. house, may be contemned; and if way be given to them, as I writ to your lordship of some of them in my last, it will sort to your honour. For other things, the lords have put them in a very good way,

CCLVI. TO THE KING. of which I will give express account when I see his Majesty, as also of other observations concerning

IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, parliament. For if his Majesty said well, that

Time hath been when I have brought unto you when he knew the men and the elections, he would gemitum columbæ from others, now I bring it from guess at the success; the prognostics are not so myself

. I fly unto your Majesty with the wings of good as I expected, occasioned by the late occur- a dove, which once within these seven days I thought rents abroad, and the general licentious speaking of would have carried me a higher flight. When I state matters, of which I wrote in my last. God enter into myself, I find not the materials of such a ever keep you.

tempest as is me upon me: I have been, as your Your lordship’s most obliged friend and faithful Majesty knoweth best, never author of any immode

rate counsel, but always desired to have things carried servant,

suavibus modis. I have been no avaricious oppressor 16 Dec. 1620. FR. VERULAM, CANC. of the people. I have been no haughty, or intoler

able, or hateful man, in my conversation or carriage :

I have inherited no hatred from my father, but am CCLIII. TO THE LORD CHANCELLOR.*

a good patriot born. Whence should this be? For MY HONOURABLE LORD,

these are the things that use to raise dislikes abroad. As soon as his Majesty's convenience would per. For the house of commons, I began my credit

I mit, I have acquainted him with the draught of the there, and now it must be the place of the sepultare proclamation your lordship sent me by his Ma- thereof; and yet this parliament, upon the message jesty's direction : his Majesty liketh it in every touching religion, the old love revived, and they said, point so well, both in matter and form, that he find. I was the same man still, only honesty was turned eth no cause to alter a word in it, and would have into honour. your lordship acquaint the lords of the council with For the upper house, even within these days, beit, though he assureth himself, no man can find any fore these troubles, they seemed as to take me into thing in it to be changed, and to take order for the their arms, finding in me ingenuity, which they took speedy setting it forth. And so I rest

to be the true straight line of nobleness, without any Yours, &c.

crooks or angles. G. BUCKINGHAM.

And for the briberies and gifts wherewith I am Theobald's, 21 Dec. 1620.

charged, when the books of hearts shall be opened, I hope I shall not be found to have the troubled

fountain of a corrupt heart, in a depraved habit of CCLIV. TO THE LORD CHANCELLOR."

taking rewards to pervert justice ; howsoever I may

be frail, and partake of the abuses of the times. I have acquainted his Majesty with your letter And therefore I am resolved, when I come to my and the enclosed: the matter which his Majesty answer, not to trick up my innocency, as I writ to the hath been thinking upon for his speech concerneth | lords, by cavillations or voidances; but to speak to both the points of the institution of a parliament, them the language that my heart speaketh to me, and of the end for which this is called ; yet his in excusing, extenuating, or ingenuously confessing; Majesty thinketh it fit that some extract be made praying to God to give me the grace to see the out of it, which needeth to be but very short, as bottom of my faults, and that no hardness of heart he will show you at his return.

do steal upon me, under show of more neatness of Yours, &c. conscience, than is cause.

But not to trouble your G. BUCKINGHAM. Majesty any longer, craving pardon for this long Theobald's, 19 Jan. 1620.

mourning letter; that which I thirst after, as the * Stephens's Second Collection, p. 133. † Ibid.

Ibid. p. 136.


kart after the streams, is, that I may know, by my it to the sentence of the house, and it was reported matchless friend that presenteth to you this letter, by my lord treasurer. pour Majesty's heart (which is an abyssus of good- But now, if not per omnipotentiam, as the divines ness, as I am an abyssus of misery) towards me. I speak, but per potestatem suaviter disponentem, your have been ever your man, and counted myself but an Majesty will graciously save me from a sentence, usufructuary of myself, the property being yours. with the good liking of the house, and that cup may And now making myself an oblation to do with me pass from me, it is the utmost of my desires. as may best conduce to the honour of your justice, This I move with the more belief, because I asthe honour of your mercy, and the use of your service, sure myself that, if it be reformation that is sought, resting as clay in your Majesty's gracious hands. the very taking away the seal, upon my general subMarch 25, 1621. FR. ST. ALBAN, CANC. mission, will be as much in example, for this four

hundred years, as any farther severities.

The means of this I most humbly leave unto your

Majesty. But surely I conceive, that your Majesty CCLVII. TO THE KING.*

opening yourself in this kind to the lords counsellors,

and a motion from the prince, after my submission, IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, and my lord marquis using his interest with his I THINK myself infinitely bounden to your Ma- friends in the house, may effect the sparing of a jesty, for vouchsafing me access to your royal sentence, I making my humble suit to the house for person, and to touch the hem of your garment. Ithat purpose, joined with the delivery of the seal see your Majesty imitateth Him that would not

into your Majesty's hands. break the broken reed, nor quench the smoking flax ; This is the last suit I shall make to your Majesty and as your Majesty imitateth Christ, so I hope in this business, prostrating myself at your mercyassuredly my lords of the upper house will imitate seat, after fifteen years' service, wherein I have you: and unto your Majesty's grace and mercy, and served your Majesty in my poor endeavours with an next to my lords, I recommend myself. It is not entire heart, and, as I presumed to say unto your possible, nor it were not safe, for me to answer par- Majesty, am still a virgin for matters which concern ticulars till I have my charge ; which when I shall your person or crown; and now only craving, that receive, I shall without fig-leaves or disguise excuse after eight steps of honour I be not precipitated what I can excuse, extenuate what I can extenuate, altogether. and ingenuously confess what I can neither clear But because he that hath taken bribes is apt to nor extenuate. And if there be any thing which I give bribes, I will go farther, and present your Mamought conceive to be no offence, and yet is, I de- jesty with a bribe. For if your Majesty give me sire to be informed, that I may be twice penitent, peace and leisure, and God give me life, I will preonce for my fault, and the second time for my error. sent your Majesty with a good history of England, And so submitting all that I am to your Majesty's and a better digest of your laws. And so concludgrace, I rest

ing with my prayers, I rest 20 April, 1621.

Your Majesty's afflicted, but ever devoted




CCLIX. TO THE PRINCE OF WALES. I It hath pleased God, for these three days past, to visit me with such extremity of head-ache, upon the

IT MAY PLEASE YOUR HIGHNESS, hinder part of my head, fixed in one place, that I When I call to mind, how infinitely I am bound thought verily it had been some imposthumation. to your highness, that stretched forth your arm to And then the little physic that I have, told me, that save me from a sentence; that took hold of me to either it must grow to a congelation, and so to a keep me from being plunged deep in a sentence ; lethargy; or to break, and so to a mortal fever and that hath kept me alive in your gracious memory sudden death: which apprehension, and chiefly the and mention since the sentence ; pitying me as, I angaish of the pain, made me unable to think of hope, I deserve, and valuing me above that I can deaos basiness. But now that the pain itself is as- serve : I find my words almost as barren as my for. suaged to be tolerable, I resume the care of my tunes, to express unto your highness the thankfulbusiness, and therein prostrate myself again, by my ness I owe. Therefore I can but resort to prayers letter, at your Majesty's feet.

to Almighty God to clothe you with his most rich Your Majesty can bear me witness, that, at my and precious blessings, and likewise joyfully to melast so comfortable access, I did not so much as ditate upon those he hath conferred upon you more your Majesty, by your absolute power of par- already; in that he hath made you to the king your don, or otherwise, to take my cause into your hands, father, a principal part of his safety, contentment, and to interpose between the sentence of the house; and continuance: in yourself so judicious, accomand, according to my own desire, your Majesty left plished, and graceful in all your doings, with more • Stephens's Second Collection, p. 138.

† Ibid. p. 113.

# Ibid. p. 145.

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