men ; sometimes the women inherit nothing ;? whereas in a few exceptional cases the women are the only inheritors. Among various savages the widow also has a share in the inheritance, or at any rate has the usufruct of property left by her deceased husband. Very frequently the eldest son,' or, where the maternal system of descent prevails in

222 $99.



Sarbah, Fanti Customary Laws, Mademba, ibid. p. 81 (pagan Bambara). p. 87. Post, Afrikanische Jurisprudenz, Lang, ibid. p. 238 (Washambala). ii . 13 sq. Idem, Entwicklungsgeschichte Kraft, ibid. p. 289 (Wapokomo). des Familienrechts, p. 298 sq. Idemi, Rautanen, ibid. p. 335 (Ondonga). Grundriss der ethnol. Jurisprudenz, i. Decle, op. cit. p. 486 (Wakamba).

Among several uncivilised Campbell, Travels in South Africa, p. peoples landed property descends

520 (Kafirs). Post, Afrikanische exclusively (Macpherson, Memorials of Jurisprudenz, ii. 5. Idem, EntwickService in India, p. 62 [Kandhs] ; lungsgeschichte des Familienrechts, p. Sumner, in Jour. Anthr. Inst. xxxi. 296 599. Idem, Grundriss der ethnol. 79 (Jakuts); Curr, The Australian Jurisprudenz, i. 218 sq. Kait, i. 64; Johnston, Uganda Pro. Hamy, in Bull. Soc. d'Anthr. lei torate, ii. 694 ; Post, Entwick- Paris, ser. ii. vol. xii. (1877), 535 iungsgeschichte des Familienrechts, p. (Penong Piâk of Cambodia). Bucha298 sq. ; Idem, Grundriss der ethnol.

nan, quoted by Hodgson, MiscelJurisprudens, i. 224) or by preference laneous Essays, i. 110 (Kócch). Post, Thomson, Story of New Zealand, Grundriss der ethnol. Jurisprudenz, i. i gó; Post, Grundriss der ethnol. Jurisprudens, i. 224 sq.) to men.

Nelson, • Eskimo about Bering * Castrén, Nordiska resor och forsk- Strait,' in Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethn. ningar, i. 312 (Ostyaks). Marshall, A xviii.

307. Dawson, Australian Phrenologist amongst the Todas, p. 206. Aborigines, p. 7 (certain tribes of Holgson, Miscellaneous Essays, i. Western Victoria). Hunt, * Ethnogr. 122 (Bódo and Dhimáls). Hislop, Notes on the Murray Islands, Torres Papers relating to the Aboriginal Tribes Straits,' in Jour. Anthr. Inst._xxviii. of the Central Provinces, P: 12 na

7. Grange, Journal of an Expedi(

of the tion into the Naga Hills,' in Jour. Kuki-Lushai Tribes, p. 16; Stewart, Asiatic Soc. Bengal, ix. pt. ii. 964. *Notes on Northern Cachar,' in Jour. Mason, ibid. xxxvii. pt. ii. 142 Asiatic Soc. Bengal, xxiv. 640 (Kukis). (Karens). Post, Entwicklungsge. Risley, Census of India, 1901, vol. i. schichte des Familienrechts, p. 303 399. Ethnographic Appendices, pp. 146 ó Dalager, op. cit. pp. 29, 31 ; Santals), 156 (Mundas), 209 (most of Cranz, op. cit. i. 176 (Greenlanders). the ingami Nagas). Fryer, Khyeng Risley, op. cit. p. 203 (Limbus of People of the Sandoway District, p. 6. Nepal). Macpherson, op. cit. p. 62 Marsden, op. cit. p. 244 (Rejangs). (Kandhs). Soppitt, op. cit. p. 16 Eyre, Expeditions of Discovery into (Kukis). Fryer, op. cit. p. 6 (Khyens). Central Australia, ii. 297. Munzinger, Junghuhn, op. cit. ii. 147 (Bataks). Die Sitten und das Recht der Bogos, Gill, Life in the Southern Isles, p. 46. P. 73. Hinde, Last of the Vasai, p. Polack, op. cit. ii. 69; Colenso, op. 105: Johnston, Uganda Protectorate, cit. p. 33 (Maoris). Munzinger, Die 11. 828 ( Masai). Dale, in Jour. Anthr, Sitten und das Recht der Bogor, pp. Inst, XXV. 224 (Wabondei). Kingsley, 69, 73 sq. Paulitschke, op. cit. p. 192 Travels in West Africa, p. 485 (some (Gallas). Hollis, Masai, p. 309; West African tribes). Nassau, Fetichism Hinde, op. cit. pp. 51, 105 (Masai). in West Africa, p. 13 (natives of the Volkens, Der Kilimandscharo, p. 253 Cameroon ) Leuschner, in Steinmetz, (Wadshagga). Kingsley, Travels in kechiszerhältnisse, p. 20 (Bakwiri). West Africa, p. 485 (some West


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full, the eldest uterine brother or the eldest son of the eldest uterine sister," is the chief or even the only heir. But there are also several instances in which this privilege is granted to the youngest son. Thus, among the Hos of India he apparently inherits all the property of his father ; among the Limbus of Nepal, though an extra share is set apart for the eldest son, the youngest one is allowed to choose his share first ;' among the Eskimo of Behring Strait, “ if there are several sons the eldest gets the least, the most valuable things being given to the youngest. In Greenland a foster-son inherits all the property of his foster-father, if the latter dies without offspring or if his sons are still young children ;' and of the West African Fulah we are told that, though they have sons and daughters, the adopted child becomes heir to all that they leave behind. Among the Kukis, in default of legitimate issue, a natural son succeeds to his father's property before all other male relations ; ' among the Bódo and Dhimáls sons by concubinage or adoption get equal shares with sons born in wedlock; the Wanyamwezi of Eastern Africa have the habit of leaving property to their illegitimate children by slave girls or concubines even to the exclusion of their issue by wives." Among other uncivilised peoples, African tribes). Bosman, op. cit. pp. 493 sqq. Post, Grundriss der ethnol. 173 (natives of the Gold Coast), 322 Jurisprudenz, i. 218, 221 sq. Lieb(natives of the Slave Coast). recht, Zur Volkskunde, p. 432. Leuschner, in Steinmetz, Rechtsver- + Tickell, Meinoir

the hältnisse, p. 20 (Bakwiri). Mademba, IIodésum, in Jour. Asiatic Soc. ibid. p. 81 (pagan Bambara). Desoi- Bengal, ix. pt. ij. 794, n. gnies, ibid. p. 276 (Msalala). Marx, • Risley, op. cit. p. 203. CA. ibid. p. 355 (Amahlubi). Chanler, Mason, in Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Through Jungle and Desert, p. 316 xxxvii. pt. ii. 142 (Karens). (Rendile). Post, Afrikanische Juris- 6 Nelson, in Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethn. prudenz, ii. 12 599. Idem, Grundriss der ethnol. Jurisprudenz, i. 217, 218, 7 Dalager, op. cit. p. 33.

8 Denham and Clapperton, quoted Proyart, “History of Loango,' in in Spencer's Descriptive Sociology, Pinkerton, Collection of Voyages and African Races, p. 8. Travels, xvi. 571.

9 Stewart, in Jour. Asiatic Soc. 2 Kingsley, West African Studies, Bengal, xxiv. 640. P: 373 sq. (some West African tribes). 10 Hodgson, Aliscellaneous Essays, i. Sorge, in Steinmetz, Rechtsverhältnisse, p. 413 (Nissan Islanders).

Burton, Lake Regions of Centra! 3 Risley, op. cit. p. 227 (Lusheis). Africa, ii. 23 sq. Cf. Post, AfrikaLubbock, Origin of Civilisation, p. nische Jurisprudenz, ii. 6.



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xvii. 307

220 sq.


I 22.


again, slaves cannot inherit at all, and where they are allowed to possess property the master is sometimes the legitimate heir of his slave.?

At higher stages of civilisation the rules of inheritance present the same characteristics as among many savages. During historic times, at least, the nations of culture have

reckoned kinship through the father, and succession has | been agnatic. In China women only inherit in the very

last resort, failing all male relatives. Among the Hebrews,

in ancient times, only sons, not daughters, still less wives, i could inherit;' but the later law conferred on daughters i the right of heirship in the absence of sons. The Muham

medan law of inheritance in most cases awards to a female a share equal to half that of a male of the same degree of relationship to the deceased ;' but according to the old law of Medina women could not inherit at all.s Of all

the ancient nations with whose rules of inheritance we are | acquainted, the Romans seem to have been the only one

who gave daughters the same right of inheritance as sons." In India women had originally no such right at all, but in this, as in other matters relating to property, their position subsequently improved. In Attic law sons excluded


Nicole, in Steinmetz, Rechtsver. hältnisse,

pp. 115, 119 (DiakitéSarracolese). Lang, ibid. pp. 238, 242 (Washambala). Kraft, ibid. pp. 289, 291 (Wapokomo). Rautanen, ibid. p. 335 (Ondonga). Post, Grund. riss der ethnol. Jurisprudenz, i. 383.

? Munzinger, Die Sitten und das Recht der Bogos, p. 73. Steinmetz, L'echtsverhältnisse, p. 43 (Banaka and Bapuku). Madeniba, ibid. p. 83 natives of the Sansanding States). Pust, Grundriss der ethnol. Juris. prudens, i. 383.

* See Westermarck, op. cit. P.

147. Benzinger, ‘Law and Justice,' in Cheyne and Black, Encyclopeedia Biblica, ini. 2728.

Numbers, xxvii. 8. Gans, op. cit. i. 147. Benzinger, loc. cit. p. 2729. It is only by exceptional favour that the daughters inherit along with the sons (Job, xlii. 15).


12, 175. Lane, Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, p. 116 sq. Kohler, Rechtsvergleichende Studien, p. 102 $99.

8 Robertson Smith, K’inship and Marriage in Early Arabia, pp. 65,

i Koran,

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Gans, op. cit. ii. 367 sq. Gide, Étude sur la condition privée de la femme, p. 102.

Alabaster, Law of Inheritance,' in China Review, v. 193. Inheritance and " Patria Potestas" in China,' Art. v. 406.

3 Genesis, xxxi. 14 sq. Numbers, xxvii. 4 Gans, Das Erbrecht in atligeschichtlicher Entwickelung, i.

10 Jolly, loc. cit. pp. 83, 86. Kohler, * Indisches Ehe- und Familienrecht,' in Zeitschr. f. vergl. Rechtswiss. iii. 424 $119. Leist, Alt-arisches Jus Civiie, ii. 48.

daughters from succession, and the same was the cas among the Scandinavian peoples still in the later Middl. Ages. In England women are even to this day postponed to men in the order of succession to real property.' Specia privileges in the division of the father's property were granted to the eldest son by the Hebrews and Hindus, and traces of primogeniture are met with in ancient Greek legislation. In the history of English law we find not only primogeniture, but ultimogeniture as well."

As regards the question of legitimacy, we notice that in China all sons born in the household have an equal share in the inheritance, whether born of the principal wife or a concubine or a domestic slave. Among the Hebrews the sons of concubines had a right of inheritance, but whether on an equality with the other sons we do not know.10 According to Muhammedan law no distinction in point of inheritance is made between the child of a wife and that borne by a slave to her master, if the master acknowledge the child to be his own.11 In Hindu legislation the legiti

1 Gans, op. cit. i. 338, 341. Gide, op. cit. p. 79. 2 Nordström, Bidrag till

den svenska samhälls-författningens historia, ii. 95, 190.

Siemann, Den danske Retshistorie indtil Christian Vi's Lov, p. 311 sq. Keyser, Efterladte Skrifter, ii. pt. i. 330, 339.

3 Renton, Encyclopedia of the Laws of England, xi. 75.

+ Deuteronomy, xxi. 17. Gans, op. cit. i. 148. Benzinger, in Cheyne and Black, Encyclopædia Bibliia, iii. 2729. Mr. Jacobs suggests (Studies in Biblical Archæology, p. 49 sqq.) that ultimo. geniture was once the rule in early Hebrew society, and was succeeded by primogeniture only when the Israelites exchanged their roving life for one in which sons became more stay-at-home.

5 Ápastamba, ii. 6. 14. 6, 12. Laws of Manu, ix. 114. Jolly, loc. cit. pp. 77, 82. Maine, Dissertations on Early Law and Custom, p. 89 sq. In China, though sons inherit in equal shares, “it is not uncommon for the brothers to temporarily yield up their share to the elder brother, either in whole or in

part, for the glory of the House"
( Inheritance and “ Patria Potestas
in China,' in China Review, v. 406 ;
of. Doolittle, Social Life of the Chinese,
ii. 224 ; Davis, China, i. 343).

6 Fustel de Coulanges, op. cit. p. 99.

7 Elton, Origins of English History, p. 178 549. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law till the Time of Edward 1. ii. 263 sqq. The custom of ultimogeniture has also been traced in Wales, parts of France, Germany, Friesland, Scandinavia, Russia, and Hungary (Elton, op. cit. p. 180 sqq. ; Liebrecht, op. cit. p. 431 sq.).

8 Parker, 'Comparative Chinese
Family Law,' in China Review,

Inheritance and
Potestas in China,' ibid. v. 406.
Medhurst, Marriage, Affinity, and
Inheritance in China,' in Trans. Roy.
Asiatic Soi. China Branch, iv. 31. Sim-
cox, Primitive Civilizations, ii. 351.

9' Genesis, xxi. 10 599.
10 Benzinger, in Cheyne and Black,
Encyclopædia Biblica, iii. 2729.

1 Lane, Modern Egyptians, p. 118.

viii. 79.

“ Patria


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pate sons have the nearest right to the inheritance of their ather, but a son begotten by a Sadra on a female slave nay, if permitted by his father, take a share of it. The Roman law on the subject may be summed up thus : With regard to its father a natural child has no right at all, and differs in no respect from a stranger ; with regard to its mother it has the same right as a legitimate child.? In Teutonic countries the position of illegitimate children as to succession was much more favourable in earlier times than jater on when Christianity made its influence felt, depriving them of all title to inheritance. Strangers were formerly unable both to inherit and to transmit property. For a long time it was the custom in Europe to confiscate their effects on their death ; and not only persons who were born in a foreign country were subject to this droit d'aubaine, as it was called in France, but in some countries it was applied even to persons who removed from one diocese to another, or from the lands of one baron to another. 4 Indeed, it is only in recent times that foreigners have been placed on a footing of equality with citizens with regard to inheritance. In 1790 the French National Assembly abolished the right of aubaine as being contrary to the principle of a human brotherhood. Later on, when the Code Napoléon was drawn up, a backward step was taken by restricting the abolition of this right to nations who acted with reciprocity ; but this limitation only lasted till 1819, when all inequalities were finally removed in France. In England

it was not until 1870 that foreigners were authorised ! to inherit and bequeath like British subjects.”

Besides acquisition by occupation, possession for a | certain length of time, labour, voluntary transfer, and

inheritance, there are instances in which ownership in a

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Vanu, ix. 179.

Jolly, loc. cit. p. 85. Laws of général des fiefs en France, ii. 944 sqq.

de Laurière, Glossaire du droit Gide, op. cit. p. 567 579.

françois, p. 47 sq. Demangeat, Nordstrom, op. cit. ii. 67, 200 sqq.

Histoire de la condition civile des See also Alard, Condition ei droits des étrangers en France, p. 107 s99. enrints naturels, pp. 9, II; supra,

Demangeat, op. cit. p. 239.

6 Ibid. p. 250 sqq.
Brussel, Nouvel eramen de l'usage 7 Naturalisation Act, 1870, $ 2.


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VOL. 11

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