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Homosexual practices among the lower animals, p. 456. — Among various races

of men, pp. 456-464.— Between women, p. 464 sq.—The causes of homo-

sexual practices, pp. 465-471.--Congenital sexual inversion, p. 465 sq.-

Absence of the other sex or lack of accessible women, p. 466 sq.-

Acquired inversion, pp. 467-470.—Homosexuality in ancient Greece partly

due to the methods of training the youth, p. 469 sq.- Partly due to the

great gulf which mentally separated the sexes, p. 470 sq.-Causes of pederasty

in China and Morocco, p. 471.-Moral ideas concerning homosexual

practices, pp. 471-489. ---Among uncivilised peoples, pp. 471-475.—Among

the ancient Peruvians, p. 473 sq.--Among the ancient Mexicans, Mayas,
and Chibchas, p. 474.-- Among Muhammedans, p. 475 sq. --Among the

Hindus, p. 476.- In China, p. 476 sq.-In Japan, p. 477.--Among the

ancient Scandinavians, - p. 477 59.-In ancient Greece, p. 478 sq.-In Zoro-

astrianism, p. 479 sq.- Among the ancient Hebrews, p. 480.-In early

Christianity, p. 480 sq.— In Pagan Rome, ibid. - In Christian Rome, p.

481.--European legislation regarding homosexual practices during the

Middle Ages and later, p. 481 $1.-Modern legislation on the subject, p. 482

54.--Moral ideas concerning it in present Europe, p. 483.- Why homo-

sexual practices are frequently subject to censure, p. 483 sq.-Criticism of

Dr. Havelock Ellis's suggestion as to the popular attitude towards homo-

sexuality, pp. 484-486. — The excessive sinfulness attached to homosexual

practices by Zoroastrianism, Hebrewism, and Christianity, due to the fact

that such practices were intimately associated with unbelief, idolatry, or

heresy, pp. 486-489.

REGARD FOR THE LOWER ANIMALS

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The belief in a future life, p. 515 sq.--Notions as regards the disembodied soul,

p. 516.-The dead considered to have rights very similar to those they had

whilst alive, pp. 516-520.—The soul must not be killed or injured, p. 516 sq.

-Its living friends must positively contribute to its comfort and subsistence,

p. 517 sq.—The right of ownership does not cease with death, p. 518 sq.-

Robbery or violation committed at a tomb severely condemned, ibid.—Respect

must be shown for the honour and self-regarding pride of the dead, p. 519.-

The dead demand obedience, p. 519 59. —The sacredness attached to a will,

p. 519.—The rigidity of ancestral custom, p. 519 59.-Duties to the dead that

arise from the fact of death itself, pp. 520-524.- The funeral, the rites con-

nected with it, and the mourning customs, largely regarded as duties to the

dead, ibid.— The duties to the dead influenced by the relationship between

the parties, p. 524 sq.-- By the age and sex of the departed, pp. 525-527.-

By class distinctions, p. 527.-By moral distinctions, p. 527 sij.--The causes
from which the duties to the dead have sprung, pp. 528–549. - These duties

partly based on sympathetic resentment, p. 528. –The dead regarded as

guardians of their descendants, P: 529 sq.-But the ancestral guardian spirit

does not bestow his favours for nothing, p. 530 sq.—The dead more commonly

regarded as enemies than friends, pp. 531-534.-Explanation of the belief

in the irritable or malevolent character of the dead, p. 534 sq.- The fear of

death and the fear of the dead, pp. 535-538.— The conduct of the survivors

influenced by their beliefs regarding the character, activity, and polluting

influence of the dead, pp. 538-546. — The origin of funeral and mourning

customs, pp. 541-547.-Why practices connected with death which originally

sprang from self-regarding motives have come to be enjoined as duties,

p. 547 sq.-Why the duties to the dead are rarely extended to strangers,

p. 548 sq.--Explanation of the differences in the treatment of the dead which

depend upon age, sex, social position, and moral distinctions, p. 549. — The

duties to the departed become less stringent as time goes on, p. 549 sq.— The

duties to the dead affected by progress in intellectual culture, pp. 550-552. —

The funeral sacrifice continued as a mark of respect or affection, p. 550.-

Offerings made to the dead become alms given to the poor, pp. 550-552.

The prevalence of cannibalism, p. 553:- Various forms of it, p. 554. - Cannibal.

ism due to scarcity or lack of animal food, p. 555.- To gourmandise, pp.

555-557.–To revenge, pp. 557-559.-The practice of eating criminals, p.

558 sq.--Cannibalism a method of making a dangerous individual harmless

after death, p. 559 sq.-Due to the idea that the cannibal, by eating the

supposed seat of a certain quality in a person, incorporates it with his own

system, pp. 560-562.-Cannibalism in connection with human sacrifice, p.

562 sq. - The eating of man-gods, p. 563 sq.-Other instances in which a super-

natural or medicinal effect is ascribed to human flesh or blood, pp. 564-566. —

Cannibalism as a covenant rite, p. 566 sq.--Special reasons given for the

practice of eating relatives or friends, pp. 567-569.—The cannibalism of

modern savages represented as the survival of an ancient practice which was

once universal in the human race, p. 569 sq.-Criticism of this theory, pp.

570-580.-Savages who feel the greatest dislike of cannibalism, p. 570 sq.

Cannibals often anxious to deny that they are addicted to this practice, p.

572.-The rapid extinction of it among certain savages, p. 572 sq.-Even

among peoples very notorious for cannibalism there are individuals who abhor

it, p. 573. — The aversion to cannibalism may be due to sympathy for the dead,

p. 574.- In the first instance it is probably an instinctive feeling akin to those

feelings which regulate the diet of the various animal species, ibid. The

eating of human fesh regarded with superstitious dread, pp. 574-576.- The

feeling of reluctance may be overcome by other motives and may be

succeeded by a taste for human flesh, p. 577 sq.-Early man probably not

addicted to cannibalism, pp. 578-580. —Cannibalism much less prevalent

among the lowest savages than among races somewhat more advanced in

culture, p. 578 sq.--Among some savages cannibalism known to be of
modern origin or to have spread in recent times, p. 579 sq.—The moral
valuation of cannibalism, p. 580 sq.

Definition of the term "god," p. 602. --Gods have the rights to life and bodily

integrity, pp. 602-604.-Not necessarily considered immortal, p. 602 sq. -
The killing of totemic animals, p. 603 sq.--Divine animals killed as a religi-
ous or magical ceremony, pp. 604-606. —The killing of man-gods or divine
kings, pp. 606-610.–The right to bodily integrity granted to gods occasionally
suspended, p. 610.–Supernatural beings believed to be subject to human
needs, p. 610 sq.-To require offerings, p. 611 sq.-Sacrificial gists offered to
supernatural beings with a view to averting evils, pp. 612-614.-With a view
to securing positive benefits, pp. 614-616.-Thank-offerings, p. 615 sq.

Sacrificial victims intended to serve as substitutes for other individuals, whose

lives are in danger, pp. 616-618.-Occasionally regarded as messengers, p.

618.-Sacrifices offered for the purpose of transferring curses, pp. 618-624: -

The covenant sacrifice, pp. 622-624.—The sacrificial victim or offered article

a vehicle for transferring benign virtue to him who offered it or to other

persons, p. 624 sq.-Sacrifice becomes a symbol of humility and reverence, p.

625 sq:-Sacrifice as a duty, p. 626. -Supernatural beings possess property,

and this must not be interfered with, p. 626 sq.-Sacred objects must not be

appropriated for ordinary purposes, p. 627 sq.–The right of sanctuary, pp.

628-638. --Its prevalence, pp. 628-634.-Explanation of this right, pp. 634-

638.

CHAPTER XLIX

DUTIES TO GODS (concluded)

Supernatural beings sensitive to insults and disrespect, p. 639 sq.-Irreverence to

gods punished by men, ibid. —The names of supernatural beings tabooed, pp.

640-643. --Explanation of these taboos, p. 642 sq.-- Atheism, p. 643 sq.-

Unbelief, pp. 644-646. --Heresy, p. 646 sq.- Polytheism by nature tolerant,

pp. 647-649.- The difference in toleration between monotheistic and poly.

theistic religions shows itself in their different attitudes towards witchcraft,

pp. 649-652.—The highest stage of religion free from intolerance, p. 652 sq

Prayer a tribute to ihe self-regarding pride of the god to whom it is

addressed, pp. 653–655. — Prayers connected with offerings, p. 655 sq.—Magic

efficacy ascribed to prayer, pp. 656-659.—Gods demand obedience, p. 659.

-The influence of this demand upon the history of morals, p. 659 sq.

Explanation the obligatory character attached to men's conduct towards

their gods, pp. 660-662.

CHAPTER L

The supernatural beings of savage belief frequently described as utterly indifferent

to all questions of worldly morality, pp. 603-665.— The gods of many savages

mostly intent on doing harm to mankind, pp. 665-667.--Adoration of

supernatural beings which are considered at least occasionally beneficent

also very prevalent among uncivilised peoples, pp. 667-669. — Their

benevolence, however, does not prove that they take an active interest in

morality at large, p. 669. --Instances in which savage gods are supposed to

punish the transgression of rules relating to worldly morality, pp. 669-687.–

Savages represented as believing in the existence of a supreme being who is a

moral law-giver or judge, pp. 670-687.—The prevalence of such a belief in

Australia, pp. 670-675.-In Polynesia and Melanesia, p. 675:- In the

Malay Archipelago, p. 675 sq.- In the Andaman Islands, p. 676. - Among the

Karens of Burma, p. 677.-In India, p. 677 sq.--Among the Ainu of Japan,

p. 678. -Among the Samoyedes, ibid. - Among the Greenlanders, ibid.

Among the North American Indians, pp. 679-681.---Among the South

American Indians, p. 681 sq.-In Africa, pp. 682-685.-- Explanation of this

belief, pp. 685–687.—The supreme beings of savages invoked in curses or

oaths, p. 686 sq.-The oath and ordeal do not involve a belief in the gods as

vindicators of truth and justice, pp. 687-690.- The ordeal essentially a

magical ceremony, ibid. --Ordeals which have a different origin, p. 690. —

The belief in a moral retribution after death among savages, pp. 690-695. –

The sources to which it may be traced, pp. 691-695.-The influence of

religion upon the moral consciousness of savages, p. 695 sq.

pp. 825-852

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