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A HILLSIDE STREET IN ROMAN JERUSALEM ALONG WHICH JESUS AND THE DISCIPLES MAY WELL HAVE WALKED (after Germer-Durand).

-Frontispiece.

OF

ARCHÆOLOGY AND

THE BIBLE

BY
GEORGE A. BARTON, Ph. D., LL. D.

PROFESSOR OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE AND SEMITIC LANGUAGES
IN BRYN MAWR COLLEGE; SOMETIME DIRECTOR OF THE
AMERICAN SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL RESEARCH IN JERUSALEM

PART I

THE BIBLE LANDS, THEIR EXPLORATION, AND THE RESULTANT

LIGHT ON THE BIBLE AND HISTORY

PART II

TRANSLATIONS OF ANCIENT DOCUMENTS WHICH CONFIRM OR

ILLUMINATE THE BIBLE

PHILADELPHIA
AMERICAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION

1816 CHESTNUT STREET

To
CAROLINE B. D. BARTON

Faithful Comrade in
the Campaign of Life

Copyright, 1916, by
AMERICAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION

All rights vested in and reserved by

AMERICAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION

PREFACE

For a hundred years or more the explorer and the excavator have been busy in many parts of the world. They have brought to light monuments and texts that have in many cases revolutionized our conceptions of history and have in other cases thrown much new light on what was previously known.

In no part of the world have these labors been more fruitful than in the lands of the Bible. In Egypt and Babylonia vistas of history have been opened to view that were undreamed of before exploration began. The same is true for that part of the history of Palestine which antedates the coming of Israel. Information has also been obtained which illumines later portions of the history, and makes the Biblical narrative seem much more vivid. It is now possible to make real to oneself the details of the life of the Biblical heroes, and to understand the problems of their world as formerly one could not do. Exploration has also brought to light many inscriptions in the various countries that confirm or illuminate the traditions, history, poetry, and prophecy of the Bible. The sands of Egypt have even yielded us some reputed new sayings of our Lord.

It is the purpose of this book to gather into one volume the most valuable information of all sorts that the excavations in Bible lands have afforded, and to put it in such form that it may be of service to the pastor and Sunday-school teacher. An attempt has been made so to present the material that one may not only have the wealth of illumination for Biblical study that exploration has produced, but also that he may possess an outline of the history of the exploration and of the countries sufficient to enable him to place each item in its proper perspective. Whether in handling so large a mass of data the writer has achieved his aim, the reader must judge. The preparation of the volume was undertaken at the request of the Board of Managers of the American Sunday-School Union, for publication under the John C. Green Income Fund,a fund founded in 1877 "for the purpose of aiding ... in secur

Reclair,

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