by which its assertions are supported, the evidence, as it were, on which it is founded. But the expression il a fait ses preuves, means, he has made himself known, he bas shown his ability, his courage, or any good quality.

et l'aller parcourant, and go rambling over it. The infinitive aller refers to the prep, sans, without, which in French is always construed with the infinitive, never with the participle active-page 41, No. III. But the verb aller, to go, may be construed, as here, with the participle active, and with the infinitive. In the former case it merely serves to give a greater intensity to the action, to paint it, as it were, for it might generally be omitted, and the meaning would yet be clear; as here you might say, in prose, sans en chercher la preuve en tout cet univers, et sans le parcourir. When Bossuet says, l'univers alloit s'enfonçant dans les ténèbres de l'erreur, the meaning simply is, “the world was sinking into the darkness of error,” and that is equally expressed by le monde s'enfonçoit, but alloit s'enfonçant paints, as it were, the progressive gradual act of sinking. Vaugelas contended that the verb aller could be thus construed with the participle active, only when there was an actual motion expressed by the verb, as, cet abbé va lisant ses heures; cette bergère va chantant son berger l'attend: where it means cet abbé lit ses heures en marchant, this Abbé reads his prayer-book whilst he his walking; cette bergère, chante en allant son berger l'attend, this shepherdess sings whilst she is going to the spot where her shepherd waits for her; and T'homas Corneille confirms this opinion. They did not perceive the beauty of the expression, and later writers have very properly rejected their pedantic decision. We often read of un ruisseau qui s'en va serpentant dans la plaine, a brook that runs meandering through the plain ; and J. J. Rousseau says, ainsi va flottant sur mon compte le sot public, thus does a foolish public waver and change their opinions in my respect. Aller, construed with the infinitive, means to go to do a thing, as below, il va prendre son somme, he goes to take his nap. Allez travailler, go to your work, page 73, No. V. page 83, No. VI. But in this construction it

close ;

frequently denotes what is intended to be done directly, page 120, No. VIII. or an event that is to take place in a very short time. Le jour va finir, this day is drawing to its

il va mourir, he is on the point of death ; vous alliez dire une bétise, you were on the point of saying a foolish thing. But even with the infinitive, the verb aller is very often a mere expletive, strengthening the expression in the same way that it does above with the participle active. Songez combien vous afligeriez vus parens si vous alliez faire une telle sottise, consider how much you would distress your relations if you were guilty of such a folly. N'allez pas croire que je vous donne ce livre, do not suppose that I am giving you this book. We shall have frequent occasion of noticing the verb aller, in different constructions. Je la treuve is a poëtical licence for je la trouve, I find it, viz. the proof, la preuve, which is feminine, and with which treuve is to rhyme.

un villageois, (m. like all the words in ois, except fois, f. time, une fois, once) a villager : a female villager is une villageoise, f. But villageois is also an adjective. Il a un air villageois, he looks like a countryman ; elle a des manières villageoises, she has rustic manners.

la tige, the stalk of a plant, the trunk or body of a tree; a blade of corn; it is feminine, and an exception to the rule of the words in ige being of the masculine gender. Menu, menue, adj. slender, small. Menue monnoie, small change; as pence, half-pence, and farthings; menus frais, menue dépense, small expenses, money spent for trifling articles; menue plaisirs, pocket-money. Cet enfant a trop pour ses menus plaisirs, this child has too much pocket-money. Menus plaisirs also denotes the money spent by the kings of France, upon plays, ballets, and other diversions at court; the treasurer of this money is called l'intendant des menus plaisirs, or merely intendant des menus ; and the house where he has his office, and where the stage decorations, dresses, and scenery are kept, is called l'hotel des menus. Menus suffrages, small perquisites, and also short prayers ; menu rôt, small birds roasted, such as larks, quails, snipes, wheat

ears; menu plomb, small shot. The substantive, le menu, m. is a bill of fare in a family: at coffee-houses, taverns, and restaurateurs, it is now generally called la carte, which word, properly, means the bill of what eatables have been furnished at an inn or tavern. Se donner du menu, to divert one's self, exactly like prendre, or se donner du bon tems, page 88, No. VI.

c'eut été justement l'affaire, that would have been the very thing, that would have suited exactly, page 6, No. I. tel fruit, tel arbre, like fruit, like tree; just as tel maitre, tel valet, like master, like man. But the French also say, telle rie, telle fin, like life, like death, meaning that people die as they have lived. Tel, telle, adj. such, like. Sometimes it means indeterminately many a man; tel fiert qui ne tue pas, many a man strikes who does not kill; tel qui rit Vendredi, Dimanche pleurera, many a one who laughs on Friday will weep on the following Sunday, and coupled with quel, it denotes contempt. Ma chambre est telle quelle, my room is but indifferent.

c'est dommage, it is a pity. Dommage, m. (p. 39, No. III.) damage, detriment, loss. But it never denotes a total loss. Hence you may say in French, la perte de la moitié de mon revenu me causeroit un dommage considérable, the loss of half my income would cause me a considerable loss-meaning detriment, inconvenience.

Garo is a peasant's name. The poët makes the villager apostroph himself. Tu n'es point entré, thou didst not enter, thou wast not admitted. Entrer, r. n. 1. to enter, to go in, to come in, is conjugated in its compound tenses with the verb être ; je suis entré quand vous étiez sorti, I entered when you were gone out. Entrer dans le jardin, to go into the garden ; entrer dans le monde, to begin to appear in company; entrer à table, to sit down to dinner or supper ; entrer en charge, to enter upon an office; entrer au service de quelqu'un, to enter into one's service. Il entre, v. imp. there is. il entre de la rhubarbe dans cette médecine, there is some rhubarb in that physic. Entre has exactly the same pronunciation with un antre, a den.

Un curé, m. a rector or vicar of a parish, a parson.

It never denotes a curate; this is in French un Vicaire. Hence the title of Goldsmith's “Vicar of Wakefield" is in French Le Curé de Wakefield. une Cure, f. is a living with the charge of souls, never a curacy.

Dieu s'est mépris, God has made a mistake. Se méprendre, refl. v. to mistake, page 165, No. XI. The part. past is spelt exactly like the noun substantive mépris, m. contempt. But the verb to contemn, to despise, is mépriser, r. a. 1. un quiproquo, (m. like all the words in o except une virago) a mistake. It takes no s in the plural, (pron. kiproko.) Les quiproquo d'Apothicaire sont quelquefois dangereux, Apothecaries' mistakes are sometimes dangerous.

prendre son somme, to take his nap; or faire un somme, page 150, No. X. le dormeur, m. the sleeper, page 67, No. V.

en patit, suffers from it, en, page 21, No. II. and 1:30, No. IX. pátir, r. n. 2. to suffer, to be punished; vous en pátirez, you will suffer for it. éveiller, r. a. 1. to wake, to rouse from sleep ; s'éveiller, refl, v. to get wake, to awake.

le visage, m, face, visage, conntenance; changer de visage, to turn red or pale ; faire bon visage à quelqu'un, to receive a person kindly; faire mauvais visage à quelqu'un, to receive badly, to look cross at a person.

pris au poil du menton, caught, sticking in the hair of the chin, page 85, No. VI.; 166, No. XI. le poil, m. the hair of any part of the body except the head ; this is called les cheveux, m. pl. or la chevelure, f. It also denotes the colour of hairy animals. De quel poil est votre cheval? Of what colour is your horse ? Il est de poil bai, is it a bay one. .

You will now understand the following anecdote: Louis XIII. à l'entrée d'une petite ville écoutoit impatiemment une harangue ennuyeuse (a tedious complimentary speech.) Beautru, un de ses courtisans, crut qu'il feroit plaisir au roi d'interrompre l'orateur. Monsieur, lui demanda-t-il, les ânes dans votre pays (the asses of your country) de quel prix sont-ils ? L'orateur (the speaker) s'arrêta (stopped) et après avoir regardé Beautru depuis les pieds jusqu'à la tête, il lui dit: quand ils sont de votre poil et de votre taille (size, ils valent dix écus ;

(they are worth ten dollars) et il reprit le fil de sa barangue, (and he resumed the thread of his speech.)"

meurtri, bruised, part. past of meurtrir, r. a. 2. to bruise, which anciently signified to kill. le langage, m. language, speech; but it does not denote a national idiom; this is expressed by la langue, f, the tongue. La langue Angloise, la langue Françoise, la langue Allemande. But you may say in the masculine, without any substantive, je sais l’Anglois, j'apprends le François, j'étudie l'Allemand.

je saigne, I bleed; saigner, r. a. and n. 1. to bleed. (pron. -nié, like onion.) Saigner du nez, to want courage, to refuse fighting. Se saigner, to part with so much money as to cramp one's self.

Il s'est saigné pour envoyer son fils à l'Université, be made a stretch to send his son to the University, to give him a college education. Tomber, r, n. 1. to fall, is conjugated with étre. Je suis tombé de cheval, I had a fall from my horse. une masse, f. a mass, bulk, heap, lump. There are 44 words in asse feminine, and only 6 masculine.

lourd, lourde, (the d is never sounded in the masc.) gross, stupid, beayy, dull, difficult; une lourde besogne, a business that is attended with much difficulty ; une lourde faute, a gross fault. une gourde, f. (like all the words in ourde) a gourd, a species of pumpkin. It is also called Courge, and Calebasse.

Schiller's little poem on the invincible Armada of Spain, which he wrote in the year 1786, will furnish us with some grammatical and philological remarks on the German language.

Sie kömmt, sie kömmt, des Mittags stolze Flotte

Das Weltmeer wimmert unter ihr;
Mit Kettenklang und einem neuen Gotte

Und tausend Donnern naht sie dir,
Ein schwimmend Heer furchtbarer Citadellen

(Der Ozean sah ihres gleichen nie)
Unüberwindlich nennt man sie,

Zieht sie einher auf den erschrock'nen Wellen;
Den stolzen Namen weiht

Der Schrecken, den sie um sich speit.

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