Ҿ˹˹ѧ
PDF
ePub

and die Hand, the hand; die Wand, the inner wall or partition, which are f.

wo die Citronen blühn, where Lemons blossom : the Germans are at liberty to generalize their ideas either with or without the article. Had it not been for the rhythmus, the Pöet might have said, wo Citronen blühn blühen, r. v. to bloom, to blossom, to blow, conj. with haben. Every infinitive in en may omit the e, provided it creates no harshness; thus it cannot be omitted in lieben, leben, arbeiten, streiten, because the word would become so harsh that it could hardly be pronounced.

im dunkeln Laub, a contraction for in dem dunkeln Laub, in the dark foliage; dunkel, adj. dark, obscure, unintelligible. das Laub, es, n. the foliage, whence die Laube, f. the arbour.

die Gold Orangen glühn, the gold oranges, (golden oranges,) glow. glühn, r. n. v. to glow, conj. with haben. It is sometimes used actively, to make to glow. das Eisen glühen, to heat iron so that it glows.

ein sanfter wind, a soft wind; the adj. marking the gender. sanft, adj. soft, mild.

vom blauen Himmel, contr. for von dem blauen Himmel, from the blue Heaven ; blau, blue. der Himmel, des Himmels, pl. die Himmel, the Heaven, the Sky; anciently any hollow covering ; hence, a canopy over a throne is called ein Thronhimmel, m. a bed's head, ein Betthimmel. It also means the climate, when we say, die Italiäner leben unter einem milden Himmel, the Italians live in a mild climate. Most words in el are m. though there are several f, and n.

weht, 3d pers. sing. ind. pres, of the r, n. v. wehen, to blow like the wind; it is more noble than blasen, irr. which is said of musical wind instruments. Er bläst die Flöte, he blows or plays the Flute. Der Wind wehet stark, the wind blows violently.

Die Mirthe still und hoch der Lorbeer steht, the myrtle stands still, and the laurel stands high ; the myrtle grows quietly, and the laurel rises high. We had stille-stehen, page 77,

No. V. Hoch, adj. bigb, makes höher, higher, in the comparative, without the letter c, but it has it in the superlative; der höchste, the highest; das höchste Gut, “maximum bo- .. num.” Der Lorbeer, or Lorbeerbaum, the laurel tree, the bay tree. Lorbeerblätter, bay leaves. Trees in general are f. unless the name is coupled with baum, which makes it m. as die mirthe, the myrtle, becomes der mirthenbaum.

Kennst du es wohl? Knowest thou it well? dost thou know it well? es, “it,” refers to Das Land, which is n.

Dahin, thither, is the adv. there, with the particle hin, which shows the direction from the speaker.

möcht'ich mit dir, o mein Geliebter, ziehn! I should like with thee, O my beloved, to move. The nom. ich is behind the verb, on account of the dahin beginning the sentence.

Ich möchte, I should like, is the imp. subj. of the aux. verb, Mögen, which must be learnt in the Grammar. When used as an optative, möchte is generally strengthened by wohl, well, or gern, willingly. Ich möchte wohl der Kaiser seyn ! I should like to be the Emperor, says Gleim ; and another German poet (Kospoth,) after having declared that he had no wish to be the Pope, adds--yet when he receives his money, I should like to be his cousin or his brother for three short hours.

“ Doch streicht er seine Gelder ein
Dann möcht’ich auf drei Stündelein
Sein Vetter oder Bruder seyn."

mit dir, with thee, dat. mit, prep. constantly gov. the dative.

o mein Geliebter, O my beloved. We observed, page 78, No. V. that the adj. construed in the vocative must mark the gender; the same takes place with the pron. poss. o mein geliebter Vater, meine geliebte Mutter, mein geliebtes Kind ! we had ziehen, page 31, No. II.

auf Säulen, on pillars; auf, prep. upon, is here construed with the dative, because the roof rests, is at rest upon the pillars ; eine Säule, f. a pillar, a column ; eine Denksäule, a monument; eins Schandsäule, a pillory.

[ocr errors]

rooms.

ruht, 3d pers. sing. ind. pres. r. n. v. ruhen, to rest, (with haben) nach gethaner Arbeit ist gut ruhen, rest is sweet after the labour is performed. die Kuppel der Kirche ruhet auf vier Säulen, the cupola of the church rests on four pillars.

sein Dach, its roof, in reference to Haus, which is n. and so is das Dach, the roof. Most words in ach are n., except der Bach, page 75, No. V. and die Schmach, f. shame, disgrace.

Es glänzt der Saal, the hall sparkles. The es is expletive here, and serves merely to throw the nom. bebind the verb.

glänzen, r. n. v. (with haben) to shine, to sparkle. Der Saal, es, e, pl. die Säle, m. the hall, the saloon, the drawing-room. It is generally coupled with a word that denotes the particular destination of such a large room, as der Speisesaal, the diningroom ; Der Bildersaal, the picture-gallery; der Büchersaal, the Library; der Tanz, or Ballsaal, the ball-room; der Versammlungsaal, the assembly-room ; der Hörsaal, the lecture-room. In Hamburgh, Saal is a floor with two or three

Hence you often see printed hills in the windows of different houses, stating, heir ist ein Saal zu Hauer, or zu Miethe, here is a floor to let.

Schimmern, r. n. v. (with haben) to glitter with a weaker light than shining or sparkling; die Sterne schimmern und die Sonne scheint, the stars glitter and the sun shines. Das gemach being a private bed-room, (see page 31, No. II.) the Pöet insinuates that these rooms, though splendidly furnished, are less splendid than the drawing-room.

und marmorbilder stehn, and marble images stand; marble statues, properly eine Bildsäule, f. a. statue; ein Bild, n. es, e, pl. Bilder, an image, a picture, a representation of any kind; an allegory. ein Bildhauer, m. a Statuary.

und sehn mich an, and look at me; from sehen, page 45, No. III. to see; and the particle an, at, we make the sep. comp. v. ansehen, to look at, to perceive by looking at. Warum sehen sie mich so an .? why do you thus look at me? Ich weisz nicht warum ich sie ansehe. I do not know why I look at you. Man sieht es Ihnen an dasz sie die Nacht nicht geschlafen haven, one may perceive, by looking at you, that you

have not slept last night. Observe that in those cases where the verb is to stand last, the separable particle is again conjoined with the verb. · Sehen sie das Kind an, look at the child. Ich glaube nicht dasz sie das Kind ansehn, I do not believe that you are loooking at the child. Nein, dieses ist das Kind welches ich ansehe ; No, this is the child which I am looking at.

After this line you must supply the words, “ as if they were saying.” It is a strong poetical ellipsis, which the German language readily admits.

Was hat man dir, du armes Kind, gethan? what has one done, what have they done to thee, thou poor little child ? du armes Kind; again armes, because Kind, a child, is n.; das Kind, es, e, pl. die Kinder. Da ich noch ein Kind war, when I was yet a child ; in my childhood.

mein Beschützer, my patron, my protector ; der Beschützer, ers, m. from beschützen, to protect.

Kennst du den Berg ? knowest thou the mountain ? der Berg, es, e, pl. die Berge, the mountain, the mount, the hill, and frequently any rising ground. Hence several German towns are named berg, as Königsberg, King's bill; Johannisberg, St. John's Hill. We say die Haare standem mir zu Berge, my hair stood on end; er ist über alle Berge, he is gone heaven knows where. Da stehen die Ochsen am Berge, here are the oxen standing at the hill, to denote here is the difficulty, now we are stopped. Wir sind noch nicht über den Berg, we have not yet got over the (hill) difficulty. Der Kreutzberg, near Berlin, is a Sand-hill, on which there is an iron monument to commemorate the exploits of the Prussians against the French, in 1813-14.15, during which period the military decoration of those who most distinguished themselves consisted in an iron cross, worn round the neck by a black ribbon ; ein Kreutz, n. is a cross ; die Ritter des eisernen Kreutzes, the Knights of the iron cross.

und seinen wolkensteg, and its cloudy path ; eine wolke, f. a cloud; der Steg, es, e, pl. die Stege, the path, the narrow way, the stile.

Das Maulthier, es, pl. e. n. the mule; but we also bave der maulesel, m. which has the same signification ; but maulthier is less vulgar.

Sucht im Nebel seinen Weg, seeks in the fog his way. Suchen, v. a. and n. to seek, to search, to look for; was suchen sie? what are you looking for? Ich habe meinen Stock in allen Winkeln gesucht und kann ihn nicht finden, I looked for my stick in every corner, and cannot find it. Sie müssen suchen es ein andermal besser zu machen, you must seek (endeavour) to do better another time.

im Nebel, contr. for im dem Nebel, in the foy; der Nebel, s, m. the fog, the mist.

Seinen weg, its way, in reference to das Maulthier, n.

In Höhlen, in caverns; die Höhle, f. the cave, cavern, den, from hohl, adj. hollow; die Höhlen der wilden Thiere, the dens of wild beasts.

wohnt, 3d pers. sing. ind. pres. of r. v. n. wohnen, to dwell, to live. Remember that as you do not say in French où vivez vous? where do you live? neither must you say in German, “ Wo leben Sie but Wo wohnen Sie? where do you live? Ich wohne in der breiten Strasse, I live in Broad Street.

des Drachen alte Brut, the Dragon's old brood, old race; der Drache, en, m. the Dragon ; alt, adj. old, ancient; die Alten, the Ancients; eine Brut. f. a brood, a race.

Es stürtzt der Fels, the rock falls ; again the expletive es, to throw the nom. behind the verb. Stürzen, r. n. v. (with seyn) to fall suddenly with great force; der Regen stürzte in Strömen von Himmel, the rain came down in torrents from the heaven. Mein Bruder ist gestern vom Pferde gestürzt, my brother had yesterday a violent fall from his horse ; actively, (with haben) it denotes to plunge, to throw down violently.

der Fels, es, pl. die Felsen, or der Felsen, s, m. the rock. The first is more poetical; the latter is more generally used in common conversation.

und über ihn die Fluth, and over it (falls) the flood; die Fluth, f. a flood, a deluge of water.

Kennst du ihn wohl ? dost thou know (him, ihn, in reference to der Berg, the mountain, which is m.) it well?

« ͹˹Թõ
 »