Some Cuneiform tablets

Bearing on
the Religion of Babylonia and Assyria.


Kerr Duncan Macmillan.

The texts here published were copied by me, during the holidays of the years 1902 and 1903, in the British Museum. All but a couple of them are now published for the first time, and none, so far as I

know, have heretofore been translated. They are religious texts of 10 one kind or another. Some are Sumerian, some bilingual, some only

Semitic; some are Babylonian, some are Assyrian. Many are mere fragments, hardly, at first sight, worth the copying. But I have endeavored to identify the tablet, and, when possible, to relate it to other

known religious tablets, and in not a few instances have succeeded 15 in finding duplicates among the tablets of the British Museum in

London or the Royal Museum in Berlin. The work has been slow and often very unsatisfactory; but the text resulting from the union of K. 7897 with two duplicates is itself enough reward. And here

I would say a word in praise of fragments. The few here published, 20 chosen almost at random from the thousands in the British Museum,

seem to me so valuable, supplementing as they do the hymns published by REISNER from the Berlin Museum, as well as important texts and series published elsewhere, such as the 'ritual tablets, edited

so well by ZIMMERN, or the 'penitential psalms, that I for my part 25 do not doubt that when the thousands of fragments now lying in

Museums are published, we shall be able to reconstruct very many, probably the most of the texts bearing on the religion of Assyria and Babylonia.

To many of the texts I have given a transliteration and trans30 lation. The transliteration of the Sumerian has given me some

difficulty. Where the pronunciation was moderately sure, I have given it; when this was not the case, I have put the syllabic value of the signs in capitals; in a few cases it has been necessary to write Beiträge zur semit. Sprachwissenschaft. V.


the sign itself. I have used the method of transliteration used in DELITZSCHI's Lesestiicke and Handwörterbuch. To my translation I have added only such notes as I deemed essential.

Many of the texts are too fragmentary to permit a connected translation; for the contents of these the reader is referred to the

5 index and the glossaries. The index is intended merely to tell the general character of the text. The glossary however will be found to contain not only rare words and forms, but also words and phrases from all the texts, and more especially from the untransliterated texts, which will serve as a more efficient index. My object in this 10 is to spare others the time which I have had to give to the reading of texts for which no such index existed. To this has been added a list of the names of the gods found in these texts.

It is needless to add that it would have been easy to enlarge this work. Many questions concerning the religion of Assyria and 15 Babylonia, its nature and its development, might rightly have been considered in connection with these tablets. I have refrained however from this, thinking it better for the present to publish the texts simply, and to reserve other considerations for a future time when more material may be at our disposal.

Nor do I claim any degree of perfection either for my copies or for my interpretation. My experience with Assyrian and Babylonian texts leads me to think that it is well-nigh impossible to edit them the first time perfectly correctly. I have however exercised what care I could, and shall be glad if the mistakes and errors are mod- 25 erately few.

It remains for me to express my indebtedness and my thanks to the authorities of the British Museum, especially Dr. E. A. W.BUDGE, the keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities, for their kindness shown in many ways to a young student; and in a like 30 degree to Professor FRIEDRICH DELITZSCH, of Berlin, at whose feet I had the privilege of sitting and whose kindness opened to me the cases of the Assyrian Museum in Berlin. I wish also to express my thanks to Professor PAUL HAUPT, of Johns Hopkins University, who has been good enough to see this work through the press, and par- 35 ticularly to my friend Dr. ARTHUR UNGNAD) who has very kindly autographed the texts and done the proof-reading.


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DUR-ra 21 ÉŠ e an-na

ba-hul 22 MU-GIG-IB-GAŠAN an-na

DUR-ra 23 GAŠAN an-na na-am-URU-na-ku

ba-hul 24 nin GAŠAN an-na

DUR-ra 25 giš-AKKIL KI azag-ga áš-ri el-lim

ba-hul 26 nin GAŠAN (dimmer) BE-ŠAH DUN:)-ra DUR-ra 27 E-TUK-SIT-KUR-RA


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