With lines 38. 40 of our text =VATh 410, 24. 26) cf. Reis. p. 8,

79. 81:

a-mat-su e(sic!)-mu=ud-de) bît ha-an-se-it ha-an*-se-it ú-še-is-şa-a
a-mat (il Marduk bît e-še-rit e-še-rit ú-še-is-șa-a
His word, the storm, brings forth five from the house of five;

The word of Marduk brings forth ten from the house of ten. For amâtu with the preposition note K, 2875, 10; also REIS. P. 9, 88. ina a-ma-ti-šu e-liš šamêle) ina ra-ma-ni-šu-nu i-ru-ub-bu(?) ša

ša-di-i a-mat-su At his command the heavens above tremble** themselves; whose 10

word is exalted; also Reis. p. 10, 151. 153. 137; p. 45, 20, 22; p. 149 (No. 1) 30; and with ana: REIS. p. 37, 20; p. 78, II.

For the identification of Bel with the storm note REIS. p. 9, 100, 103:

15 kab-tum (il) YY (Bel) ša și-it pi-z-šú la -te-pil-lum šú-u ümu(mu) (UD-DE) tar-ba-șa i-a-ab-bat su-pu-ri i-na-as-sah Mighty Bel whose utterance is unchangeable,

He, the storm,*** destroys the stable, tears up the fold; also REIS. p. 39, 22. 23:

be-lum id-lu ša šú-me-lu i-na-ár

mu--bi- i a-bu-bu i-na-ár; cf. p. 38, 9. In another place the storm is spoken of as a god, and apparently as identical with Bel. Reis. p. 124 (No. 73) 6 ff. 6 me-en-ne e-a-šu A-RA-ZU mu-un-na (




an is accidentally omitted by REISNER; cf. Reis. p. 4, 36. ** KING, Tablets of Creation, Vol. I, p. 226, 1. 20 f. reads: šamû u irșitim irubbu ilàni(Pl) irûbu inarruļu (il)Anunnaki, and translates: The heaven and the earth quake, the gods tremble, and the spirits of the earth falter. Irûb and inarra! (or inarrut, cf. HWB 481b) must be almost synonymous. See also Reis. p.78, 12 (dimmer) Al-nun-naan-na A-RI-a-an al-DUB-DUB-e-ne-em (dimmer) MC-UL-LÍL·LÁ-šu (il)Anunnaki ša rihut (il) Anim šamê irubbu ana amat (il)EN-LIL (for this Semitic version of. I. 11 and Reis. p. 132, 19). The form II is active; cf. REIS. P. 7, 13. 15:

a-mat-tum ša e-liš šamêle) ú-rab-bu

a-mat-tum ša šapóliš ir-și-tim ú-nar-tu. BANKS translates vergehen macht and dahinschwinden macht. The better translation seems to be tremble, quake, which fits well the passages cited HWB 481 b, 614b, and from which the meaning destroy, blot out could easily be derived. In these texts rabu

DUB, narâțu PA (i. e. sig). See however REIS. p. 45, 19/20. 21/22: ina a-ma. ti-ka šama ú) ru-ķu-tu ra-ma-ni-šu-nu kan-šu-te (= = GAM) ina a-ma-ti-ka irșitim(tim) [

] i-sa-ab [ ] (-- PA). Also K. 2875, 16'17: DUB napâșu, kamâru; and note Reis. p. 115, 22 ff. šamêle) ú-ra-ab-bi (ideogram broken) irșitim(tim) ú-na-áš { 1 (-- BU'L-BLL).

*** BANKS: er, der Tyrann(?).

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7 ni-nu ana bîti ina te-is-li-ti ina(sic!) ki-ri-e-ti* [
8 me-en-ne KI e-a-šu A-RA-ZU-a mu-un: ni-nu a-šar (
9 e-a ud ša-ab KU-e-da in-ga-lah en-ne-en (

ana bîti ana lib-bi îmi(mi) nu-uh-hi i ni-lik-ku el-și-i 5 11 ša-ab-šu MAL-BAR-KU-ni-da in ana lib-bi nu-uh-hi [

12 me-en-ne ša-ab umun-e-ne mu-un-KU-E(?)-en-ne [
13 ni-nu lib-bi be-li i nu-ni-ih el-și-ina ri-$a*-[a-ti

] na ša (dimmer) ŠILIG-LU-ŠAR mu-un lib-bi (il)A[.
15 ] u ša (il)EN-LİL
10 that is, Let us go to the house with prayer with joy [

Let us (go) to the place [
To the house, to pacify the heart of the storm let us go
To pacify the heart &c.

(with rejoicing 1 Let us pacify the heart of the lord, with joy and gladness.

) and of Bel. With this may be given REIS. p. 64, 8. 10:

kar-ra-du a-bu-bu a-ši [ ] ta-mat [

a-di ma-ti tuš-ha-ra-ar mi-nam I but the broken nature of the tablet makes an exact translation im20 possible. Note also REIS. p. 31, 36 ff. ud-de egir-bi

ša-bi a-ba mu-un-zu ümumu) ar-kat-cu

] ki-rib-šu man-nu i-lam-mad ud-de e-ne-em

] (dimmer)MU-UL-LÍL-LÁ-ri ûmu(mu) a-mat (il)A-nim | | (il)MU-UL-LİL(?) 25 ud-de sa ib-ba

1 (dimmer)GU-LA-ri
ûmu(mu) nu-ug-git(sic!) lib-bi ša (il)A-nim gal (
ud ša-ab hul ma-al-la (dimmer) MU-UL-LÍL-LÁ [ ] ri

ümu(mu) lib-bi (il) A-nim ša lim-niš ib-ba-as-šu-ú Then follows: e-ne-em an-šu an-al-DUB-ba-a-ni (= REIS. p. 7, 12) 30 Similar are Reis. p. 77, 23; p. 117, 5 ff.

Sometimes amâtu and ûmu are together at the beginning of a

line, e. g


Reis. p. 8, 79: a-mat-su e(sic!)-mu (ud-de) bît ha-an-se-it ha-anše-it u-še-is-sa-a.

REIS. 7, 37: a-mat-su ümu(mu) nap-ha-ra ana bi-la-a-ti u-ra-kas (cf. K. 2875, 19 = REIS. p. 32, 56).

REIS. 13, 3:a-mat-su ûm(um) mu-dal-ih-tim a-mat-su îm(um) me-hi-e. And a similar idea is found in REIS, p. 7, 21:

a-mat-su a-bu-bu** te-bu-ú ša ma-hi-ra la i-šu-ú

* Restored from Reis. p. 14, 20 f. q. v. for kirêtu joy.

** For abûbu see also Reis. p. 28, 23; p. 38, 9; p. 39, 23, &c. Other similar expressions are rându, šamûtu Reis. P. 39, 8; zaķīķu Reis. p. 81, 40. 42; p. 62. 26 fi', And note by way of contrast Reis. p. 45, 17/18 epiš pika šâru tâbi napišti mîitâti.

His word is the approaching storm (flood?) that has no peer; and REIS. p. 7, 31:

ša be-lum a-mat-su mi-lum te-bu-ú ša ap-pa i--ša-šu [
The word of the lord is the approaching food, that makes the

countenance sad. REIS. P. 7, 33: a-mat (il)Marduk bu-tuk-tum ša ka-{ra ]

The word of Marduk is the flood that ... the dam (cf. K. 2875, 10).


No one can read these texts published by REISNER without pondering over the divine names there used so frequently. REISNER says, 10 and perhaps rightly (Vorwort, p. XIX): Zum Schluss möchte ich noch bemerken, dass wohl sämtliche Hymnen entweder an Bel oder an Ištar gerichtet sind ..... Es scheint fast, als ob alle anderen Götternamen, die in den Hymnen vorkommen, nur als Namen des Bel oder der Ištar gebraucht sind. I would like here to touch on another question which 15 may throw some light on the significance of 'storm' (ümu) in our text, namely: what is the relation Bel and Ištar bear to each other? That they are not independent is clear. Many of the tablets bear the superscription ina amât (il)Bel u (il)Beltia (cf. REIS. Vorwort, p. XV), and the two names are found frequently together. Bel is the bringer 20 of the misfortune, he may also be the savior. Ištar is also prayed to concerning the same. Now there are several passages which raise the question: can Ištar also be the bringer of misfortuner and if so, to what extent is she also, as Bel, or perhaps as his subordinate, identical with the ûmu (storm) and what is her relation to the word 25 (amâtu) of Bel?

Note first such passages as Ištar muštaklilat parșe Bel = Ištar who fulfils the commands of Bel (ZIMMERN, Busspsalmen, p. 33), and the two passages quoted by ZIMMERN in the same connection (p. 36) from I R. 27, No. 1, 10; Salm. Ob. 13: Ištar rešti šamê u irșiti 30 ša parșe kardûte šuklulat = Ištar, chief of heaven and earth, who fulfils the mighty commands; and from V R. 64, 23. 34°: Anunitum mušallimat ķibît Bel abišu Anunit, who makes perfect the command of Bel, her father. Also BRÜNNOW, ZA V, 79, 4: ana šarrat ilâni(Pl) ša parși (ilâni(pl) rabûti šut- lumu ķâtušša To the 35 queen of the gods into whose hand the commands of the great gods are delivered; and BARTON, Hebraica, X, 8: (ilu)Ištar Uruk(ki) rubâti șîrti likati paraș (il)A-nim-ú-tu = Ištar of Erech, the great, the exalted, who receives the command of the divinity.

In the REISNER texts, Ištar also makes heaven and earth to 40 tremble, e. g. REIS. p. 99, 45. 47 Ištar says:

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šamê(e) ú-rab-bi irșitim(tim) ú-nar-ra-at

mu-rab-bat šamê(e) mu-nar-ri-ta-at irșitim(tim). Similar are REIS. p. 107, 5–8; p. 109, 62; cf. also HWB 482a. The text

Reis. No. 44 (p. 77 f.) which may be here considered, is peculiar. 5 REISNER regards it as addressed to Bel; note bêlu p. 77, II. 21; Mullil p. 78, 32 (cf. 10. 17) and the lines p. 77, 19. 21:

ša ur-ri* ana mu-ši tuš-ki-nu ša na-ma-ra ana ma-a-ti[ ]ru-su

be-lu ša ûmu(mu) nam-ri ana ik-li-ti tuš-ki-nu Thou who hast given light for the night, thou who . the

spread of light on the land. Lord, thou who hast given bright day for darkness. The writer himself does not seem to be sure of the meaning of the Sumerian (see REIS. Vorwort, XV) and lets a word fall and gives

variant translations for the same line, one of which refers to the god, 15 the other to the goddess. P. 77, 7/8 reads:

lu nu-AFF-KA-ÁŠ nam-mi-SAR-ra edin-na ba-ni-in [

ana pu-ru-us-si-e pa-ra-as ana bîti il-lik-ma

To determine the decisions he has gone to the house; but nu-a (elsewhere sinništu, e. g. l. 27/28) is not translated. 20 In lines 24 ff. the goddess is apparently the destroyer: tur in-GUL

mu-lu-bi mu-un [
tar-ba-și ta-'a-bu-ut-ma u-tul-la-šu tuš-mit(?) [
amaš mu-un-SIR [ ] ba ***-ba ir-ta-um-ma HUL (?)
lu KI-EL za-e nu-AYA NU-GIN e en-me li-

ma-gin 25 ar-da-ti sin-niš-tum šal(?)-$ú ()***-u at-tam ana bîti ša i-li-ik-ki i. e., Thou hast destroyed the stable, its herds thou hast killed();

Thou hast torn up the fold, its shepherd is destroyed.
Maid, woman art thou to the house where he is gone

(or: who has gone to the house). 30 And note the two translations to p. 78, 29:

29 E-LUM uru-zu ba-an ȘI-AM ur-ri-eš [ ] KÚ-e ur [] KÚ-e

kab-tu ša ali-ša id-di-nu-ma -te-niš it(?)-tak-ka-lu

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kab-tu ali-šu id-di-im-ma nak-ri ik-kal Moreover we would expect alika for uru-zu. 35 Other passages where Ištar is represented as a destroyer are:

* There is a climax here: urru (UD-ZAL-LA) is the early morning-light, (cf. HWB 34a under šadurru and 467 b); namâra (Infinitive) is the growing light; ûmu namru is the bright day. This could not be ascribed to Ištar although she, too, is bright and the goddess of the morning, see Reis. p. 104, 30ff.; p. 98, 1/2. 38/39 ff. and also the pame given to her: pitât šigar šamê, opener of the lock of heaven, Reis. p. 99, 43.

** Cf. HWB 602b.
*** If šalšû is the correct reading, Reis. p. 109, 62 may be compared.


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REIS. p. 98, 9-14 (This text = DEL. AL3, 134-6)
The Semitic reads:

ana bîti a-we-lim ina e-ri-bi-ka
bar-ba-ri ša ana li-ki-e bu-ha-di šú-lu-ki at-ta

ni-e-šu ša ina kir-bi-e-ti it-ta-na-al-la-ku at-ta i, e. When thou enterest the house of a man,

A jackal going to seize a kid art thou,

A lion that prowls the plain art thou.
With this compare ASKT 129, 31 ff. (K. 257):

31 GE-IN-bi ù um-TAG-ga (

am-ta a-la-ap-pat-mas
33 mu-lu-bi ù um-TAG-ga

a-me-lu a-lap-pat-ma (
35 e mu-un-tu RI-EN-NA MU [
bita e-tir-bu bîta a-mi-li e-da

15 37 mu-lu A-AN-[ ] MAR EN-NA-MU (

a-mi-il ah-ti-šú-šú ih-lik [
i. l., I overthrow the maid [

I overthrow the man [
The house I enter, the house of a man (

The man whom I attacked * is destroyed | In KING, Tablets of Creation, Vol. I, p. 230, 51 Ištar (Irnini) is called labbu nadru raging lion.'

It would almost seem also that the words amtu smaid and amâtu ‘worď were interchangeable. At least there is a play on the words 2; in the following passages. Reis. p. 101, 10 ff. 1 ša šap-liš il-la-ku a-mat-su (GE-IN-bi) ana-ku mu-di-ik-ti (šadi

anaku ** 13 ša e-liš il-la-ku a-mat-su (GE-IN-bi) ana-ku His maid that goes below am I, the destroyer of the moun- 30

tains am 1. His maid that goes above am I, &c. with which is to be compared Reis. p. 7, 12-15 (cf. II, 15. 16)

a-mat-tum (e-ne-em) ša e-liš šamêle) ú-rab-bi
a-mat-tum (e-ne-em) ša šap-liš ir-și-tim ú-nar-ļu


35 The word which above makes heaven tremble, The word which below makes earth quake;

* Muss-ARNOLT, Dict. p. 346b, under hatû, says: perhaps H. (i. e. ASKT) 129, 38: a-mi-il ih-ti ķâti (ŠU)-šu: ih-lik. I think rather the reading is ah-ti-ši-šu from I, .

(f. HWB 275 b LU-GAR-RA-ab be-lum ina ha-ši-šu. (Cf. also JAOS, vol. XXIV, p. 112. P. H.

** Supplemented from 1. 8. Similar is Reis. p. 99, 53: šadi išleniš asápan, said of Ištar,

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