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29 In the bright house, the pure house will I &c. 30/31 Those who search old places see me not. 32/33 Those who search ruins see me not. 34/35 Mother,begetter,who knows sorrows, for the people E-a has setme(?). 36/37 Mistress Gula (?) whose mother is Ningal, for the people she

has set me(?). 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for the people &c.

Notes. K. 2875, K. 2004, and VATh 410 are duplicates. The first two are from the Kouyunjik collection in the British Museum; the last 10 is in Berlin and has been published by GEORGE REISNER.* They are also closely related to VATh 38 (Reis. No. 66) and VATh 231 (REIS. No. 82), and have also many points of similarity with others of the texts published by REISNER. K. 2004, Rev. 24 ff. is also a duplicate of No. 29615,** Rev. 2 ff. When we consider that this last 15 comes from the third millennium before Christ probably, and that the hymns published by REISNER date from the second century of that era, we have food for thought.

I have used K. 2875 and K. 2004 as the basis of my transliteration and translation. Where these are broken, I have used in the 20 first place VATh 410; and then, 29615. Where all these are lacking I have, when possible, restored the text from the related texts of the REISNER collection. The different readings will be found in the notes to the individual lines.

It would be possible in connection with these texts to discuss 23 many questions concerning the religion of Babylonia and Assyria. To do this properly, however, would require a thorough study of the hymns published by REISNER, *** and the similar texts recently published from the British Museum (Cuneiform Texts &c. Vol. XV,

* Mitteilungen aus den orientalischen Sammlungen der Königlichen Museen zu Berlin. Heft X. Sumerisch-Babylon, Hymnen nach Thontafeln griechischer Zeit. Herausgegeben von GEORGE REISNER. Berlin, 1896. Cited as REIS.

** Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets &c. in the British Museum, Part XV, Plates 7-9.

*** The only works on this collection of which I know are (a) Sumerisch-Babylonische Hymnen der von George Reisner herausgegebenen Berliner Sammlung, umschrieben, übersetzt und erklärt. Breslau, 1897. A dissertation by JAMES EDGAR BANKS, which contains Reis. Nos. 4. 8—10 and pp. 98-99; - (b) LEOPOLD MESSERSCHMIDT, VATh 246 Musei Berolinensis (= REISNER I) primum editur commentarioque instruitur. Berlin, 1896.

fine myself to a literal translation with only those notes which are necessary. It is however not easy to give a literal yet satisfactory translation of these texts. They are in the form of a litany, i. e.,

every line is divided in the middle, and each half may have been 5 sung or recited by responding priests or choirs. This may explain why the two halves of a line are often partly or entirely independent of each other in construction and contents, a thing especially noticeable when the šumê kardûti (REIS. Vorwort, p. XV) form one half

of the line. This division of the lines is made clear in the transliter10 ation, but I have not been able to reproduce it in the English translation.

This text is the connecting link between the ENEM texts and the ûmu texts of the REISNER collection. The word ûmu I have

translated 'storm. REISNER says (Vorwort, XVIII): “ZIMMERN (BBS 2) 15 und HOMMEL (ZKI, 41) haben bemerkt, dass einige Busspsalmen ....

allgemeine Unglücksfälle in Babylonien betreffen. Ebenso ist in einer Anzahl unsrer Hymnen von der Stadt oder dem Tempel die Rede usw." From our text it is clear what sort of misfortune is sometimes

meant. Still storm is hardly a satisfactory translation. The thought 20 is ever turned to the power that directs the storm, i. e., the angry

god Bel-Marduk, so that sometimes it is almost necessary to translate ümu: 'storm-spirit. That which is ascribed to the ûmu in K. 2875 &c, is ascribed to the word (amâtu)* of Bel in the REISNER

collection. For instance, 25 with K, 2875, 2 compare Reis. p. 8, 73:

a-mat-su ni-ši ú-šam-ra-ni-ši un-na-ú-sar-rab

His word makes the people sick, makes the people weak: oppresses. With K. 2875, 4 cf. Reis. p. 16, 9:

ša be-li a-mat-su tar-ba-șa ma-ru-us-i-pu-30 The word of the lord has done evil to the stable;

also REIS. p. 17, Obv. 3 and p. 18, 4. With K. 2875, 6 cf. Reis. p. 7, 25:

a-mat-su um-ma mar-ki-ma bu-ri-e (u-kapl-par

His word destroys mother (and) daughter as reeds(?). 35 With K. 2875, 10. 12 cf. Reis. p. 7, 31:

ša be-lum a-mat-su mi-lum te-bu-ú ša ap-pa i--ša-šu
The word of the lord is the approaching flood that makes the

countenance sad.
With K. 2875, 22 cf. Reis. p. 7, 29:
40 a-mat (il)Marduk e-bu-ur ina si-ma-ni-šu ú-ta-ab-bi

The word of Marduk drowns the harvest in its season.

* (Cf. above, p. 301. - P. H.

With lines 38. 40 of our text = VATh 410, 24. 26) cf. Reis. p. 8, 79. 81:

a-mat-su e(sic!)-mu (=ud-de) bît ha-an-še-it ha-an*-še-it ú-še-iş-şa-a
a-mat (il)Marduk bît e-še-rit e-še-rit ú-še-is-șa-a
His word, the storm, brings forth five from the house of five; 5

The word of Marduk brings forth ten from the house of ten. For amâtu with the preposition note K. 2875, 10; also REIS. p. 9, 88. ina a-ma-ti-šu e-liš šamêle) ina ra-ma-ni-šu-nu i-ru-ub-bu(?) ša

ša-di-i a-mat-su

word is exalted; also Reis. p. 10, 151. 153. 137; p. 45, 20. 22; p. 149 (No. 1) 30; and with ana: REIS. p. 37, 20; p. 78, II.

100, 103:

15 kab-tum (il) PY (Bel) ša și-it pi-i-šú la -te-pil-lum šú-u îmu(mu) (UD-DE) tar-ba-șa i-a-ab-bat su-pu-ri i-na-as-sah Mighty Bel whose utterance is unchangeable,

He, the storm,*** destroys the stable, tears up the fold; also REIS. P. 39, 22. 23:

be-lum id-lu ša šú-me-lu i-na-ár

mu--bi-'i a-bu-bu i-na-ár; cf. p. 38, 9. In another place the storm is spoken of as a god, and apparently as identical with Bel. Reis. p. 124 (No. 73) 6 ff.

6 me-en-ne e-a-šu A-RA-ZU mu-un-na [

* an is accidentally omitted by REISNER; cf. Reis. p. 4, 36.

** KING, Tablets of Creation, Vol. I, p. 226, 1. 20 f. reads: šamû u irșitim irubbu ilâni(pl) irûbu inarruļu (il)Anunnaki, and translates: The heaven and the earth quake, the gods tremble, and the spirits of the earth falter. Irûb and inarra! (or inarrut, cf. HWB 481 b) must be almost synonymous. See also Reis. p. 78, 12 (dimmer) Al-nun-naan-na A-RI-a-an al-DUB-DUB-e-ne-em (dimmer) MC-UL-LİL-LA-šu — (il)Anunnaki ša rihut (il)Anim šamê irubbu ana amat (il)EN-LIL (for this Semitic version of. I. 11 and Reis. p. 132, 19). The form II is active; cf. Reis. p. 7, 13. 15:

a-mat-tum ša e-liš šama(e) ú-rab-bu

a-mat-tum ša šap-liš ir-și-tim ú-nar-tu. Banks translates vergehen macht and dahinschwinden macht. The better translation seems to be tremble, quake, which fits well the passages cited HWB 481 b, 614b, and from which the meaning destroy, blot out could easily be derived. In these texts rabu == DUB, narâțu == PA (i. e, sig). See however REIS. p. 45, 19/20. 21/22: ina a-ma. ti-ka šam 1) ru-ku-tu ra-ma-ni-šu-nu kan-šu-te ( + GAM) ina a-ma-ti-ka irșitim(tim) [ ] i-ša-ab 11- PA). Also K. 2875, 16'17: DUB - - napâșu, kamâru; and note Reis. p. 115, 22 ff. šamête) ú-ra-ab-hi (ideogram broken) irșitim(tim) ú-na-ás [ (-- BU'L-BU'I.).

*** BANKS: er, der Tyrann(?).

7 ni-nu ana bîti ina te-is-li-ti ina(sic!) ki-ri-e-ti* [
8 me-en-ne KI e-a-šu A-RA-ZU-a mu-un: ni-nu a-šar [
9 e-a ud ša-ab KU-e-da in-ga-lah en-ne-en [
10 ana bîti ana lib-bi îmi(mi) nu-uh-hi i ni-lik-ku el-și-i

12 me-en-ne ša-ab umun-e-ne mu-un-KU-E(?)-en-ne [
13 ni-nu lib-bi be-li i nu-ni-ih el-și-ina ri-fa*-[a-ti
14 ) na ša (dimmer) SILIG-LU-SAR mu-un lib-bi (il)

15 ] u ša (il)EN-LİL
10 that is, Let us go to the house with prayer with joy [

Let us (go) to the place [

To pacify the heart &c.

(with rejoicing [ Let us pacify the heart of the lord, with joy and gladness.

) and of Bel. With this may be given REIS. p. 64, 8. 10:

kar-ra-du a-bu-bu a-ši [ ] ta-mat [

a-di ma-ti tuš-ha-ra-ar mi-nam but the broken nature of the tablet makes an exact translation im20 possible. Note also REIS. p. 31, 36 ff. ud-de egir-bi [

į ša-bi a-ba mu-un-zu îmu(mu) ar-kat-su [

ki-rib-šu man-nu i-lam-mad ud-de e-ne-em

] (dimmer)MU-UL-LÍL-LA-ri ûmu(mu) a-mat (il)A-nim [ ] (il)MU-UL-LÍL(?) [ 25 ud-de sa ib-ba [

(dimmer)GU-LA-ri
ûmu(mu) nu-ug-git(sic!) lib-bi ša (il)A-nim gal [
ud ša-ab hul ma-al-la (dimmer) MU-UL-LÍL-LÁ [ ] ri

ümu(mu) lìb-bi (il)A-nim ša lim-niš ib-ba--šu-ú Then follows: e-ne-em an-šu an-al-DUB-ba-a-ni (= REIS. p. 7, 12) 30 Similar are REIS. p. 77, 23; p. 117, 5 ff.

Sometimes amâtu and ûmu are together at the beginning of a line, e. g.

REIS. p. 8, 79: a-mat-su e(sic!)-mu (ud-de) bît ha-an-še-it ha-anše-it u-še-is-șa-a. 35 REIS. 7, 37: a-mat-su ümumu) nap-ha-ra ana bi-la-a-ti u-ra-kas (cf. K. 2875, 19 = REIS. p. 32, 56).

REIS, 13, 3: a-mat-su ûm(um) mu-dal-ih-tim a-mat-su îm(um) me-hi-e'. And a similar idea is found in Reis. p. 7, 21:

a-mat-su a-bu-bu ** te-bu-ú ša ma-hi-ra la i-šu-ú - - - - -

* Restored from Reis. p. 14, 20 f. 9. v. for kirêtu -- joy.

** For abûbu see also Reis. p. 28, 23; p. 38, 9; p. 39, 23, &c. Other similar expressions are râdu, šamûtu Reis. p. 39, 8; Dakiku Reis. p. 81, 40. 42; p. 62. 26 ff, And note by way of contrast Reis. p. 45, 17/18 epiš pika šâru tabi napišti mîitâti.

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His word is the approaching storm (flood?) that has no peer; and REIS. P. 7, 31:

ša be-lum a-mat-su mi-lum te-bu-ú ša ap-pa i--ša-šu [
The word of the lord is the approaching food, that makes the

countenance sad. 5 Reis. p. 7, 33: a-mat (il) Marduk bu-tuk-tum ša ka-sra ]

The word of Marduk is the flood that . . . . . the dam (cf. K. 2875, 10).

No one can read these texts published by REISNER without pondering over the divine names there used so frequently. REISNER says, 10 and perhaps rightly (Vorwort, p. XIX): Zum Schluss möchte ich noch bemerken, dass wohl sämtliche Hymnen entweder an Bel oder an Ištar gerichtet sind ..... Es scheint fast, als ob alle anderen Götternamen, die in den Hymnen vorkommen, nur als Namen des Bel oder der Ištar gebraucht sind. I would like here to touch on another question which 15 may throw some light on the significance of 'storm' (ümu) in our text, namely: what is the relation Bel and Ištar bear to each other? That they are not independent is clear. Many of the tablets bear the superscription ina amât (il)Bel u (il)Beltia (cf. REIS. Vorwort, p. XV), and the two names are found frequently together. Bel is the bringer 20 of the misfortune, he may also be the savior. Ištar is also prayed to concerning the same. Now there are several passages which raise the question: can Ištar also be the bringer of misfortune? and if so, to what extent is she also, as Bel, or perhaps as his subordinate, identical with the ûmu (storm) and what is her relation to the word 25 (amâtu) of Bel?

Note first such passages as Ištar muštaklilat parșe Bel = Ištar who fulfils the commands of Bel (ZIMMERN, Busspsalmen, p. 33), and the two passages quoted by ZIMMERN in the same connection (p. 36) from I R. 27, No. 1, 10; Salm. Ob. 13: Ištar rešti šamê u irșiti 30 ša parșe kardûte šuklulat = Ištar, chief of heaven and earth, who fulfils the mighty commands; and from V R. 64, 23. 34°: Anunitum mušallimat ķibît Bel abišu = Anunit, who makes perfect the command of Bel, her father. Also BRÜNNOW, ZA V, 79, 4: ana šarrat ilâni(pl) ša parși (ilâni(pl) rabûti šut-]lumu ķâtušša = To the 35 queen of the gods into whose hand the commands of the great gods are delivered; and BARTON, Hebraica, X, 8: (ilu)Ištar Uruk(ki) rubâti şîrti likâti paraş (il)A-nim-u-tu = Ištar of Erech, the great, the exalted, who receives the command of the divinity.

In the REISNER texts, Ištar also makes heaven and earth to 40 tremble, e. 8. REIS. P. 99, 45. 47 Ištar says:

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